Cardiovascular Physiology - A

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Physiology at UCF

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Question Answer
Functions of Circulatory System Transportation regulation protection
Blood volume in males 5-6 liters
Blood volume in females 4-5 liters
Blood definition specialized connective tissue which contains cellular and liquid components
What is the cellular component of blood? Blood cells
What is the fluid portion of blood plasma
hematocrit the percentage of the blood volume that consists of red blood cells
what is the hematocrit in males 42-52 percent
what is the hematocrit in females 37-47 percent
Blood plasma stay colored sticky fluid portion of blood that is 90 percent water
what are the three main plasma proteins albumin globulins fibrinogen
albumin produced by the liver and provides osmotic pressure
how is albumin used to provide osmotic pressure it is needed to draw water from the surrounding tissue fluid into the capillaries
what are the three types of globulins alpha beta gamma
where are alpha and beta globulin produced and what are their functions produced in liver; they transport lipids and fat soluble vitamins and function in immunity
Fibrinogen clotting factor produced by the liver
what is the fluid from clotted blood called serum
What are the formed elements in blood plasma blood cells RBCs WBCs platelets
each mercury molecule consists of how many globins? 4
heme red pigmented molecule that contains iron
what combines with oxygen in the lungs to release oxygen in the tissues the iron group of heme
What is the function of RBCs transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
erythropoietin is produced and released when cells do not have enough oxygen
Where is erythropoietin produced 90 percent in glomeruli of kidney and the rest in the liver
erythropoietin stimulates red blood cell production in bone marrow
how are aged RBCs removed from the blood they are degraded and sent to the spleen
Leukocytes contain nuclei and mitochondria and move in amoeboid fashion
What are the two types of WBCs? Granular and granular
What are the two types of agranular leukocytes lymphocytes and monocytes
what are the three types of granular leukocytes eosinophils basophils neutrophils
what is the function of neutrophils phagocytize bacteria
eosinophils turn off allergic responses and kill parasites
basophils release histamine and other mediators of inflammation
lymphocytes direct cell attack with T cells or antibodies with B cells
monocytes phagocytosis; develop into macrophages in tissues
Lymphocytes compose what percentage ge of WBCs 20-45 percent
Which WBC is most effective in fighting infectious organisms and act against a specific foreign molecules or antigens Lymphocytes
Which WBCs nucleus stains dark purple lymphocytes
What are the two main classes of lymphocytes T cells and B cells
T cells attack foreign cells directly
B cells multiply to become plasma cells and secret antibodies
Monocytes compose what percentage of WBCs 4-8 percent
Which WBC is the largest, are phagocytic cells and transform in macrophages? monocytes
Monocytes have a nucleus that i what shape kidney
Thrombocytes are known as platelets
what are the function of platelets blood clotting
Which hormone is secreted and causes constriction of blood vessels serotonin
platelets secrete growth factors and autocrat regulators
Erythropoiesis formation of erythrocytes
leukopoiesis the formation of leukocytes.
Myeloid tissue red bone marrow of the long bones, sternum, pelvis, bodies of the vertebrae.
Lymphoid tissue lymph nodes, tonsils, spleen, and thymus.
Where are all blood cells produced? bone marrow
Hematopoiesis gives rise to blood cells that originate in the yolk sac of the embryo
In embryonic stage blood cells are produced in liver of the fetus
Stem cells migrate to bone marrow
blood stem cell where all blood cells originate from
lymphoid stem cells give rise to lymphocytes
myeloid stem cells give rise to all other blood cells
the production of red blood cells and synthesis of hemoglobin depends on what nutrients iron B12 Folic acid
pernicious anemia deficiency of B12
aplastic anemia destruction of the bone marrow caused by chemicals or radiation
erythrocytes form from pro erythroblasts
granulocytes form from myeloblasts
mono blasts enlarge and form monocytes
platelet forming cells originate from megakaryoblasts
polycythemia abnormal excess of erythrocytes
anemia erythrocyte/ hemoglobin levels are low
normocytic anemia caused from blood loss
microcytic anemia iron deficiency
microcytic anemia in B12 or folic acid deficiency
sickle cell disease inherited disease where hemoglobin s is present; RBCs are in a sickle shape
leukemia is cancer of the blood cells. It starts in the bone marrow, the soft tissue inside most bones; can be classified as lymphoblastic or myeloblastic
Thrombocytopenia Abnormally low concentration of platelets
Bone marrow becomes major hematopoietic organ at what age 7 months
Hemoglobin helps carry oxygen
normal RBCs have what type of hemoglobin A C or S A
What are the are abnormal types of hemoglobin. S and C
treatment for sickle cell They should take supplements of folic acid. Antibiotics and vaccines are given to prevent bacterial infections.
Lymphocytic (or lymphoblastic) leukemia affects white blood cells called lymphocytes, it produces large numbers of mature white blood cells (lymphocytes).
Myelogenous leukemia affects white blood cells called myelocytes. It produces large numbers of immature and mature white blood cells (myelocytes).
Symptoms of leukemia Fever and night sweats Headache Bleeding easily Bone or joint pain Swollen lymph nodes in the armpit, neck Getting a lot of infections weakness Losing weight
treatment for leukemia Chemotherapy Interferon-alpha (INFa) therapy Radiation therapy Stem cell transplantation
What are the three layers of blood vessels Tunica intima Tunica media Tunica externa
Tunica externa composed of connective tissue
Tunica media: sheets of smooth muscle
Tunica intima composed of simple squamous epithelium
vasoconstriction contraction
vasodilation Relaxation
Lumen central blood-filled space of a vessel
arteries carry blood away from the heart
veins carry blood toward heart
capillaries smallest blood vessels and are the site of exchange of molecules between blood and tissue fluid
Elastic arteries: the largest arteries, High elastin Diameters range from 2.5 cm to 1 cm (aorta and its major branches), also called conducting arterie
Muscler arteries (distributing)
- Arterioles Smallest arteries
Blood pressure is much lower in the veins
venules small veins
Tunica externa is the thickest tunic in veins True or False True
Low permeability capillaries: Blood-brain barrier
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