Computer Science

Jaimee-Lee Kirby
Flashcards by Jaimee-Lee Kirby, updated more than 1 year ago
Jaimee-Lee Kirby
Created by Jaimee-Lee Kirby over 5 years ago
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What is a Computer System? A device that can receive data, store data, process data and output the data.
Examples of Input Devices Mouse, Microphones, Joystick, Touchscreen, Scanner and Keyboard
Examples of Output Devices Text, Displays, Monitors, Lights and Printer
Reliability in Computers It does the job its designed to do without any glitches or problems.
Data Types A letter such as 'A' is a character A word/phrase like 'Hello' is a string A number e.g. '2' is an integer A decimal like '2.9' is real 'yes/no' is Boolean A phone number '07543988157' is a STRING
Utilities This is a software tool that helps make maintaining a system easier. Antivirus - detect/remove viruses Anti Spyware - Removes programs that record data Firewalls - Blocks unauthorised material
Standards Standards are important because: - They enable equipment from different manufactures to work together - Makes learning new systems easier as they have similar characteristics.
De Facto Standards Develop overtime due to common usage. -Word or QWERTY This ensures files and systems can be used by anyone.
De Jure Standards 'By law' these have become universally accepted meaning they have to be adhered to. -ASCII or Unicode
Open Standards -Publically available -Free of charge HTML / HTTP
CPU Central Processing Unit Commonly referred to as the 'brains' of the computer. -It is responsible for executing a sequence of stored instructions called a program.
RAM VOLATILE MEMORY 'Random Access Memory' It is referred to as main memory it is a hardware device that allows information to be stored and retrieved on a computer.
Algorithms Algorithms provide a computer with a set of instructions or rules that are followed to complete a task. Step- by - step instructions that are precise.
Off The Shelf Software Off the shelf can be bought from a supplier ready to install.
Advantages of Off the Shelf -Ready to install straight away -It has probably been tested a lot -Problems would have already been reported and fixed -Online forums to help with confusion -The cost will be low
Custom Written Software Custom written software is specifically coded for a certain person/business/customer.
Custom Written Software Advantages -It should have the features you require -The developer can be contacted if there is any problems -The developer may provide training -It should not require any new adaptations after the installation.
Open Source Software Open source software can be modified as the code is shown and is publically accessible.
Open source Advantages -It may be free of charge -It can be altered as the code is available -It could be reliable because many people can improve it
Proprietary Software This is software that is developed for profit by a company, only the compiled code is released meaning it can't be changed. You have to buy a licence to use it
Propriety Advantages -There is someone to go to if there is a problem -Updates are usually regularly -It should have been extensively tested
File Types doc - word document pdf - portable document format html - hypertext mark up language jpg - compressed image format file mp3 - music file mp4 - movie
Networks A network is a group of 2 or more computer systems linked together. There are many different types of networks but the main two are LANs and WANs
LANs WANs LANs - Local Area Networks - these are usually very close together e.g. in the same building. WANs - Wide Area Networks - these are further apart (the internet can be considered a WAN)
Topologies Topologies refers to the layout of a network. The three most common topologies are Bus, Star and Ring
Bus A bus topology is the simplest of the network topologies.
Star A star topology is one of the most common network setups.
Ring A ring topology is where the devices are connected to each other in a circular shape.
Compression Compression is often used to speed up the transmission of data such as images. It changes the data into a form that uses fewer bits of data than the original data.
Lossy (Compression) Lossy compression reduces a file by permanently deleting certain information. When the file is uncompressed only a small amount of the information is there. This cannot not be detected by most users (e.g. images only using one shade of blue)
Lossless Compression Lossless compression is where every single bit of data that was originally in the file remains after the file is uncompressed. The information is completely restored. This is mainly used for text or spreadsheets where losing words or data could be a problem
IP / MAC addresses MAC - Media Access Control A MAC address is given to a network adapter when it is manufactured. IP - Internet Protocol Unique string of numbers separated by periods that identify each computer to communicate over a network.
OS - Operating Systems Operating systems are a program designed to run other programs on a computer. A computer’s operating system is its most important program it can manage both software and hardware resources.
Databases A database is a collection of information that is organized so that it can easily be accessed, managed, and updated. Features - Fields and Records
Fields and Records Fields - A field is one piece of data or information about one person or one thing. Records - all of the data or information about one person or one thing.
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