How do we eliminate pathogens that live outside cells?

Ifeoma Ezepue
Flashcards by Ifeoma Ezepue, updated more than 1 year ago
Ifeoma Ezepue
Created by Ifeoma Ezepue about 4 years ago
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University Fundamentals of Medicine (Immunology) Flashcards on How do we eliminate pathogens that live outside cells?, created by Ifeoma Ezepue on 11/03/2015.
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Describe briefly the importance of the lymph nodes in relation to immunity about 45 different lymph nodes in body where immune response initiates
Describe briefly the role of dendritic cells in relation to immunity DC go to the draining lymph nodes crawl around in immature form pick up 'bits and pieces' of bacteria, viruses etc PRR become activated as they recognise PAMPs becomes mature dendritic cells
Why may a peanut allergy not be very common in the developing world? in developed world live in more 'sterile' environment immune systems not designed for this less work for immune system to do so becomes more sensitive - hair trigger response to things it shouldn't do e.g. respond to peanuts = allergy
Why is it not practical to have a million lymphocytes for each disease? restricts flexibility of immune system can't just fight what we know as new diseases come up all the time
Why are the cells of our adaptive immune system able to recognise millions of different antigens? What is a possible problem with this? randomly cut and paste bits of genes and stick them together so every single T cell and B cell are slightly different -some recognise self or things in environment e.g. pollen need to stop these from responding otherwise response to self = autoimmune response to envrio = allergy
Pathogens target various compartments of the body which require different host defence mechanisms for eradication. What defence mechanisms are used for pathogens that target the blood, lymph and interstitial spaces? antibodies complement phagocytosis -extracellular
Pathogens target various compartments of the body which require different host defence mechanisms for eradication. What defence mechanisms are used for pathogens that target the epithelial surfaces? antibodies (IgA) antimicrobial peptides -extracellular
Pathogens target various compartments of the body which require different host defence mechanisms for eradication. What defence mechanisms are used for pathogens that target the cytoplasm of the cell? cytotoxic T cells NK cells -intracellular
Pathogens target various compartments of the body which require different host defence mechanisms for eradication. What defence mechanisms are used for pathogens that target the vesicles of the cell? T cell-dependent macrophage activation -intracellular
Worms cause disease too. Which classifications of worms have infected almost 4 billion people worldwide? hookworms pinworms roundworms (nematodes)
Which of the antibodies/immunoglobins are linked to allergies? IgE
Which part of the antibody dictates the function? the Fc portion of the heavy chain
On the heavy and light chains how many of each of V, D and J can you find? Heavy chain V- 300-1000 D- 13 J- 4 Light chain (kappa then lambda) V- 300, 2 D- 0, 0 J- 4, 3
Is IgD a monomer, dimer or pentamer? monomer
B cells make antibodies with different Fc portions. How do they do this? IgM made first CD4+ T helper cells help them to switch classes IgE = allergies IgA = secretions across lungs and gut IgG = most common antibody in blood, also found in placenta
Antibodies basically do 5 different things. What are they? Neutralization -bind to things to stop them binding to us Agglutination -stick things together Opsonization -cell can grab Fc portion by coating it with something that is 'grabbable' Activation of complement Antibody-dependent cell killing -e.g. by NK cells
Explain how affinity maturation works? -disease protein goes to germinal centre -dendritic cell keeps disease protein on surface -some B cells also go to germinal centre have antibody molecules on surface which try to bind to disease protein -protein induces mutations at part of gene where you have somatic DNA recombination to make slightly different antibody surface -if better fit - growth factor to stimulate division -if worse fit - killed
Explain how the complement cascade works load of proteins in blood bacteria have different surfaces complement proteins recognise certain processes and stop circulating in blood form a complex on bacteria surface forms a pore causes bacteria to 'pop'
There are three ways complement can be activated. What are they? bacterial sugars in body IgA bind to something that induces complement if you have direct binding of one of the complement proteins
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