Infectious diseases

Clare Yu
Mind Map by Clare Yu, updated more than 1 year ago
Clare Yu
Created by Clare Yu about 4 years ago
177
11

Description

1.What is infectious diseases? 2.The immune system and host defense against infections 3.Prevention of Infectious and Health promotion 4.Emerging and nosocomial infection
Tags

Resource summary

Infectious diseases

Annotations:

  • 1. caused by infectious agents (generate spontaneous/from air)
1 Definition
1.1 Infectious disease

Annotations:

  • -disease caused by infectious agents(bacterium, virus, protozoan, fungus) -can be passed to other host
1.2 Infection

Annotations:

  • -occurs when the infectious agent enter the body and start reproduction -may or may not lead disease
1.2.1 Pathogen

Annotations:

  • -a type of infectious agent can cause disease
1.2.2 Host

Annotations:

  • -an organism infected by another organism
1.2.3 Virulence

Annotations:

  • the relative ability of an agent can cause rapid and severe disease in a host
1.3 Prevalence

Annotations:

  • -number of cases at a given time -expressed as a percent at a given time =product of incidence x duration of disease(long duration:hepatitis B)
1.4 Contamination

Annotations:

  • The presence of an infectious agent on different kinds of material/substances(e.g. water, a body surface, clothes)
1.5 Disease

Annotations:

  • -a pathological condition -characterized by signs and symptoms
1.6 Immunogenicity

Annotations:

  • The ability of an organism to produce immune response after an infection: -providing protection against a similar or the same organism(e.g. infectious agents)
1.7 Vector of infection

Annotations:

  • an insect or any living carriers:transport an infectious agent from an infected individual/its wastes to other susceptible individuals/food/surroundings.
1.8 Reservoir

Annotations:

  • any person,animal, arthropod, plant, soil or substance or combination of these:allow an infectious agent to live and multiplies. -an infectious agent are transmittable to other susceptible(natural habitat)
1.9 Imapparent infection

Annotations:

  • -no detectable clinical symptoms -can be documented by :    1.isolation of a pathogen,     2. detection of it component(DNA)    3. produce a specific immune response in                 person(asymptomatic)
1.10 Incidence

Annotations:

  • 1.number of new cases in a given time period 2.expressed as percent infected per year/number per person time of observation
1.11 Special terms
1.11.1 Nosocomial

Annotations:

  • 1. an infection originating in a patient while in a hospital 2. not related to the patient's primary condition-e.g. infection of surgical wound, hepatitis B, urinary tract infection
1.11.1.1 Opportunistic infections

Annotations:

  • infection by organisms -take opportunity provided by a defect in host defense -organism infect the host and cause disease. 
1.11.2 Eradication

Annotations:

  • -aims to termination of all transmission of infection(extermination of the infectious agent) -absolute process(an all or non phenomenon)
1.11.2.1 Elimination

Annotations:

  • It is used to describe eradication of a disease(e.g. measles/polio) from a large geographic  region.
1.11.3 Reproductive rate

Annotations:

  • It describes the potential for an infectious disease to spread. Influential factors: 1.probability of transmission 2.frequency of population contact 3.virulence of the organism 4.population immune proportion 5.duration of infection
2 Causes
2.1 Genetic
2.2 Biological
2.3 Physical
2.4 Environment
2.5 Chemical
3 Early history

Annotations:

  • 1.Smallpox-trigger epidemic in ancient Greece and Egypt 2.Plague-coinfect with measles and smallpox  3.Syphilis- spreadly rapidly through europe in 1490s and cause high mortality
4 Koch's Postulates(a particular agent can cause a specific disease)

Annotations:

  • 1. specific agent must be associated with every case of the disease. 2. the agent can be isolated from a diseased host and grown in culture 3. the culture-grown agent is introduced into a healthy species must cause the same disease 4.the same agent must be again isolated from the infected host
5 Caused by infectious disease agents

Annotations:

  • 1.microbes/microorganisms -bacteria -viruses -protozoa -fungi -Helminths(animals)
5.1 MOA for induceing disease

Annotations:

  • 1.production of poisons(enzymes or toxins) 2.direct invasion and destruction 3.trigger immune responsed
6 Phases
6.1 Incubation period

Annotations:

  • Time between infection and apparent of symptoms
6.1.1 Prodromal period

Annotations:

  • mild,non specific symptoms that signal onset of some disease
6.1.1.1 Clinical phase

Annotations:

  • a person experiences typical signs and symptoms
6.1.1.1.1 Decline phase

Annotations:

  • subsidence of symptoms
6.1.1.1.1.1 Recovery phase

Annotations:

  • symptoms have disappeared -tissue heal -body remains strength
7 Classifications
7.1 By duration

Annotations:

  • 1. Acute 2.Chronic 3.Latent -characterized by periods of no symptoms between outbreaks of illness
7.2 By location

Annotations:

  • 1. Local- confined to a specific area of body 2. Systemic- infects most of the body with pathogens distributed widely in tissues
7.3 By Timing

Annotations:

  • 1. Primary:initial infection in a healthy person 2. Secondary:infection that occurs in a person weakened by a primary infection
7.4 Clinical

Annotations:

  • 1. Diarrheal diseases 2. Respiratory diseases 3. Central nervous system infection 4. Cardiovascular infection 5.Sepsis
7.5 Microbiological

Annotations:

  • 1. Bacterial 2. Viral 3. Fungal 4. Parasitic 5. Prion
7.6 Transmission

Annotations:

  • 1. Contact(direct/indirect) 2. Food/water borne 3. Airborne 4. Vecter borne 5. Perinatal:occurs during pregnancy
7.7 Reservoir

Annotations:

  • 1. Human:HIV, HBV 2. Animals: Rabies 3. Soil 4. Water:Pseudomonas aeruginosa
8 The severe level
8.1 Endemic

Annotations:

  • The constant of a disease or infectious agent within a given geographic area
8.2 Pandemic

Annotations:

  • an worldwide epidemic affect high proportion of global population
8.3 Epidemic

Annotations:

  • The occurrence of a disease/illnesses excess of what may be expected on the basis of past experience for a given population
9 Transmission

Annotations:

  • 1.air 2.contaminated food/water 3. body fluids 4.Direct contact 5.animal vectors
9.1 Reducing spreading

Annotations:

  • 1.Vaccines 2.Antimicrobial drugs 3.Good personal hygiene 4.Protection against vectors 5.Quarantine
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