Russia History: Unit 1 and 2

Shannon R
Flashcards by Shannon R, updated more than 1 year ago
Shannon R
Created by Shannon R about 6 years ago
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Made to the Russia Edexcel Textbook for the 2013 specification

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Topic 1 and Topic 2 BY SHANNON RAMESSAR
PROBLEMS OF RULING RUSSIA 92 times bigger than Britain 22.3 million square km Bad communication: Bad roads (unpaved and muddy), railway only connected a fraction of the country, only 55 million out of the 125.6 million people spoke Russian
What is Russification? People were expected to conform to Russian ways.
When was the census? 1897
What did the census show? Great social inequality Over half of peasants had no land of their own Poor quality of farmland and was farmed with old-fashioned and ineffective methods Shortages 93.7 million peasants
What was town life like? Moscow had a total population of 1.8 million Was the most industrialised city. Hours were long, accidents common, 10 to a room and took turns to sleep. Factory owners were rich while, factory workers were poor.
Ruling Russia Was ruled by the Tsar A dictatorship Romanov family since 1613 Russian Orthodox supported Chosen by God to rule Censorship Okhrana looked for opposition
1905 Revolution A series of demonstrations Troops guarding the Tsar's Winter Palace fired into the crowd of peaceful demonstrators Killed 130 and injured many more Producing more strikes and unrest.
What is a Duma? Basically a parliament
Rasputin Alexi had haemophilia which no drugs could heal. In 1907, Alexi was very ill and Rasputin was called for. They relied of Rasputin a lot more and because of his growing influence, many disliked him.
Different opposition groups to the new government. Monarchists, constitutionalists, revolutionaries and soviets.
What started WWI? Franz Ferdinand was assassinated by a Serbian independence group.
The Reason for the February Revolution Rationing Workers were locker-out from Putilov Works International Women's Day Strikes
Soldiers and the February Revolution 26th of February - troops were ordered to fire at the demonstrators. Some soldiers refused and changed sides. 27th -they refused their commanding officer's order to leave the Petrograd barracks and they ended up shooting him.
8 principles of the Provisional Government Political prisoners and exiles to be freed. Freedom of speech. No discrimination for religion, class or nationality. Prep for constituent assembly. Local Government to be elected. Militants who took part in the revolution will not be sent to the front. Off-duty soldiers have the same rights as civilians
Problems with the Provisional Government It needed the help of the Petrograd Soviet to pass laws. Temporary. Didn't control a lot of the country. Didn't pull Russia out of the war.
Provisional Government reforms Introduced an 8 hour working day. Legal for people to form political parties and hold public meetings Released political prisoners
Lenin's view He held the Marxist view that communism could only happen after a bourgeois revolution followed by a revolution of the workers.
April Thesis A list of aims for the party. i.e. withdraw from the war and no co-operation with the provisional government.
Why did Bolshevik support grow? They believed that the only real supporters of radical change and ending the war. The war was still draining food and fuel supplies.
What were the Bolshevik simple slogans? 'Peace, Land, Bread' 'All power to the Soviets'
The July Days The people were reacting to the war, bread rationing and the lack of reforms. Another unplanned rising. Troops were sent to clear the street. Bolshevik leaders were arrested ad Lenin had to go into hiding.
What did Kornilov want He was disturbed by the growing unrest in towns and the risings in the countryside. He pushed Kerensky to impose martial law and break the power of the Soviets.
What happened in Kornilov's revolt? Kerensky claimed that Kornilov was leading an army coup against the revolution and Kerensky armed the Bolshevik red guards and sent them to stop him.
What was the impact of Kornilov's revolt? Kerensky presented himself as the saviour of the revolution. But everyone else viewed the Bolsheviks as the saviours of the revolution instead. They won the most seats in the Petrograd Soviet election.
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