OB: SU3

shan lin
Flashcards by shan lin, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
shan lin
Created by shan lin about 4 years ago
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flashcards for OB: Study Unit 3
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3 key elements of motivation Motivation: Processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal. Motivation = DIP (Direction, Intensity, Persistence) Intensity: How hard a person tries. Direction: Whether the effort will benefit the organisation. Persistence: How long a person can maintain his or her effort. Motivated individuals stay with a task long enough to achieve their goal.
2 Early Theories of Motivation 1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory 2. McClelland’s Theory of Needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory: within every human being, there exists a hierarchy of five needs. 1. Physiological needs: Hunger, thirst, shelter, and basic bodily needs. 2. Safety needs: Security and protection from physical and emotional harm. 3. Social needs: Affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship. 4. Esteem needs: Internal esteem factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement, and external esteem factors like status, recognition, and attention. 5. Self-actualisation: Drive to become what one is capable of becoming. It concerns growth, achieving one’s potential, and self-fulfilment. As lower level needs become reasonably fulfilled, the next need becomes dominant. Pros: widely recognised and practiced, logical and easy to understand Cons: insufficient research to validate it, no empirical substantiation, no support for it
McClelland’s Theory of Needs McClelland’s Theory of Needs: achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that can help explain motivation. Need for Achievement (nAch): Drive to excel. Need for Power (nPow): Need to influence others to behave in a certain way. Need for Affiliation(nAff): Desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships. Pros: best research support Cons: less practical, measuring them not easy, time consuming & expensive
3 Contemporary Theories of Motivation 1. Goal-Setting Theory: specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance 2. Equity Theory: how individuals compare their job inputs to their outcomes. Individuals will compare their effort and outcomes to those of colleagues doing similar jobs. 3. Expectancy Theory: expectation that the act will be followed by the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual
Job Characteristics Model Job can be described in terms of five dimensions and modified to improve performance 1. Skill Variety: Degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities. 2. Task Identity: Degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work. 3. Task Significance: Degree to which a job has substantial impact on the lives or work of other people. 4. Autonomy: Degree to which a job provides freedom, independence, and discretion in carrying out the job. (salesperson who schedules own work each day without supervision had a highly autonomous job) 5. Feedback: Degree to which carrying out work activities generates direct and clear information about one’s performance.
Job Redesign Job rotation is the periodic shifting of an employee to another job. Job rotation helps reduce boredom and helps an employee understand how his or her work contributes to the organisation. Job enrichment increases the degree to which the worker controls the planning, execution, and evaluation of work. greater freedom and independence
Alternative Work Arrangements Flextime provides employees with discretion over when they arrive and leave work. Job sharing is the arrangement that allows for two or more individuals to split a traditional full-time job. Telecommuting is the arrangement where employees can work at home on a computer that is linked to their office.
Employee Involvement Uses employees’ input to increase their commitment to the organisation’s success. 1. Participative management where subordinates share decision-making power with their immediate superior. 2. Representative participation is where workers participate in organisational decision-making through a group of representative employees.
Rewards 1. Piece-Rate Pay: Compensating employees a fixed sum for each unit of production completed. For example, a seamstress in a factory may be paid a fix amount for each garment manufactured. 2. Merit-Based Pay: Pay is based on performance appraisal ratings. For example, an employee’s performance appraisal will affect his or her pay raise that year. 3. Bonuses: Rewarding employees for recent performance rather than historical performance. For example, a high performing employee may be compensated with a large bonus.
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