shan lin
Flashcards by shan lin, updated more than 1 year ago
shan lin
Created by shan lin over 5 years ago



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Groups & Types of Groups Two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who collaborate to achieve specific goals. Formal group: A group defined by an organisation’s structure Informal group: A group that is neither formally structured nor organisationally determined that members voluntarily join because they derive personal benefits, share a common interest or pursue similar goals
Reasons Why People Join Group People join groups for a variety of reasons that are generally related to their drive to satisfy social, power, achievement and other personal needs. 1. Similarity: around those who share the same values or characteristics 2. Distinctiveness: show that they are different 3. Status: identify & associate themselves with high-status groups 4. Uncertainty reduction: want to better understand who they are and their role in the world
Tuckman’s 5 Stage Group Development Model 1. Forming: uncertainty about the group’s purpose, structure, and leadership. Members try to determine what types of behaviour are acceptable. 2. Storming: Characterised by intra-group conflict. Members accept the existence of the group, but there is resistance to constraints on individuality. 3. Norming: Characterised by close relationships and cohesiveness. The group structure solidifies and the group has a common set of expectations for what defines correct member behaviour. 4. Performing: The group structure at this point is fully functional and accepted. Group is focused on performing the task at hand. 5. Adjourning: For temporary groups, the group prepares for its disbandment, wrapping up activities.
Group Properties Characteristics of a group influence the behaviours and performance of its members. 1. Roles 2. Norms 3. Size 4. Diversity 5. Status 6. Cohesiveness
Group Decision-Making Reaching a decision through a collective process involving some, most or all group members.
Why Group decision-making better than individual decision-making? 1. Decision accuracy 2. Decision quality 3. Decisions requiring creativity But not: Decision speed
Group decision-making: Strengths & Weaknesses Strengths: 1. more inputs 2. better decisions Weaknesses: 1. more time-consuming 2. responsibility is ambiguous 3. internal conflicts 4. groupthink & groupshift
Groupthink Phenomenon where pressure for conformity prevents the group from critically appraising alternative views.
Reasons for Groupthink 1. high degree of group cohesiveness 2. Enjoying positive image 3. Members keen to protect group positive image 4. Dominated by 1 member or clique
How to minimise groupthink? 1. leaders to play an impartial role 2. Appointing a devil’s advocate role 3. Active discussion of diverse alternatives (Brainstorming)
Groupshift Phenomenon where initial individual group members’ positions move towards a more extreme position.
Reasons for Groupshift 1. Risk-takers tend to be more admired 2. Conservatives want to show they are willing to take risk 3. Group seems to diffuse individual accountability and responsibility
Groups vs Teams
Work Group Interacts primarily to share information and make decisions to help each group member perform within his/her area of responsibility
Work Team Generates positive synergy through coordinated effort and bring about better performance than the sum of its members’ inputs
Types of Teams 1. Problem-solving team 2. Self-managed team 3. Cross-functional teams 4. Virtual teams 5. Multiteam System
Factors that influence the effectiveness of teams 1. Contextual Factors 2. Team Composition 3. Team Processes 4. Work Design
Turning Individuals Into Team Players 1. Select 2. Train 3. Reward Policies
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