Restless earth flash cards - geography

Vishal Kapila
Flashcards by Vishal Kapila, updated more than 1 year ago
Vishal Kapila
Created by Vishal Kapila over 5 years ago
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GCSE Geography Flashcards on Restless earth flash cards - geography, created by Vishal Kapila on 11/11/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
4 parts of the earth ? - inner core - outer core - mantle - crust (continental and oceanic)
make up of the 4 parts of the earth ? inner core - solid nickle and iron (5500 C) outer core - liquid nickle and iron (4500 C) mantle - solid/liquid magma (3000 C) crust - solid granite and basalt
what was wegener's theory ? continents were all together at one point - continental drift. this theory was rejected till scientists found out about CONVECTION CURRENTS and TECTONIC PLATES
what are tectonic plates ? Earths crust is broken into pieces called TECTONIC PLATES, they can move due to convection currents in the mantle.
what are concevtion currents ? in the mantle there is a mix of solid and liquid magma so the less dense magma rises while the more dense magma falls - these are convection currents.
where are most volcanoes, earthquakes and fold mountains found on earth? near plate boundaries - due to movement of plates creating different land forms or processes.
destructive boundaries denser oceanic plate subducts a less dense continental plate - volcanoes, earthquakes, fold mountains.
constructive boundaries convection currents in mantle separate 2 plates, the gap is filled by magma which solidifies - volcanoes, earhquakes
collision boundaries when 2 continental crusts of equal density bunch up - earthquakes, fold mountains
conservative boundaries 2 plates build up pressure, then slide at different speeds (in the same/different directions) - earthquakes
ocean trench at a DESTRUCTIVE BOUNDARY when subduction occurs leaving an ocean trench (mariana trench)
composite volcano at a DESTRUCTIVE BOUNDARY a steep sided volcano, has layers of ash and lava - violent eruptions (soufriere hills)
shield volcano at a CONSTRUCTIVE BOUNDARY a gently sloping volcano - calmer eruptions (erta ale volcano)
hotspot at CONSTRUCTIVE / DESTRUCTIVE BOUNDARIES - 1. due to rising mantle plumes (Kilauea and loa - volcanoes in Hawaii)
fold mountains at COLLISION / DESTRUCTIVE BOUNDARIES when 2 plates push each other and sediment from sea bunches up
where are the andes? stretches across the west coast of south america
farming in the andes - how do they farm on steep slopes TERRACING (cutting the slopes to create flat areas) - so thin soils don't slide down the mountain and helps retain water
where are most crops grown and what crops are grown mostly grown on flat areas (lower valleys) - grow cash crops (soybeans, cotton, rice)
how is gold extracted from mines? dynamite used to loosen gold ores, then cyanide used used to help extract gold from ore
pros and cons of mining? PROS - new jobs CONS - increased crime, noise from dynamite, water pollution from cyanide.
how do the slopes help with HYDRO ELECTRIC POWER (HEP)? steep slopes allow for a larger flow of water so MORE ELECTRICITY PRODUCED also melting snow in winter adds to water supply
why is there tourism in the andes and what does it bring? tourism due to many natural attractions (peaks, volcanoes, glaciers etc...) - this brings MONEY to the country by selling goods and tours etc also bringing AWARENESS to the country.
PROBLEMS in the Andes - EL NINO - frequent change in climate (floods, landslides, problems for farmers) - TOURISM DAMAGES LANDFORMS - walking and litter - people farming coca started to chew the plant (ingredient in cocaine) - taking it will cause riots
MONSERAT - date and location WHEN - June 25th 1997 (2 smaller eruptions in 1995) - dormant before 1995 WHERE - Monserat - small island in Caribbean.
CAUSES of monserat (PLATES) lay on a DESTRUCTIVE BOUNDARY - north american plate subducted Caribbean plate MAGMA ROSE = ERUPTION
MONSERAT - PRIMARY EFFECTS - 19 deaths - capital (plymoth) abandoned - unemployment rose - 20 villages, airports, hospitals and farmland destroyed due to pyroclastic flow
MONSERAT - SECONDARY EFFECTS - FIRES started - smoke and ash poisoned water - towns made inhabitable - tourism and businesses dropped - population decline + volcanic ash IMPROVED SOIL + tourism increase NOW to see volcano
MONSERAT - IMMEDIATE RESPONSES - people EVACUATED to safe areas - SHELTERS built - TEMPORARY INFRASTRUCTURE built - UK gave £17 million EMERGENCY AID
MONSERAT - LONG-TERM RESPONSES - EXCLUSION ZONE set up - UK gave £40 million to rebuild airports and housing - VOLCANIC OBSERVATORY built
what are SUPERVOLCANOES? bigger than normal volcanoes and have far worse effects - larger magma filled chambers (yellowstone)
what is the CALDERA? large volcanic crater found on supervolcanoes
how are supervolcanoes FORMED? 2. Above CONTINENTAL 'hotspots', large bubble of rising magma heats continental crust, then the magma chamber collapses forming a CALDERA
how do supervolcanoes ERUPT? under a CALDERA is a large bubble of trapped magma. 1. earthquake cracks the CALDERA and releases magma which explodes. 2. pressure from magma pushes off CALDERA
EFFECTS of a supervolcano - 10,000 square km of land destroyed - 50km of ash blasted into air - GLOBAL DIMMING - ash blocks out sun (-10 degrees) - air, crops and water POLLUTION (ash) - could cause tsunamis - will cause WORLDWIDE TERROR
Focus, Epicentre and Shockwave - Focus - earthquake originates - Epicenter - directly above focus - Shockwave - bursts from the focus
richter scale and mercalli scale - Richter Scale - strength of EQ (1-10) - Mercalli Scale - damage done by EQ (1-12)
HAITI - date and location Haiti is in the Caribbean - January 12 2010
CAUSES - Haiti (plates) CONSERVATIVE BOUNDARY - north american plate and Caribbean plate. 7.0 on Richter scale
EFFECTS - haiti - 160,000 DEATHS - 300,000 INJURED - 250,000 residential buildings collapsed - lack of food - many people HOMELESS - lots of landslides - cholera outburst (dirty water)
IMMEDIATE responses - Haiti - Dominican republic gave aid, water, machinery - people pledged money - EMERGENCY RESCUE teams from Iceland
LONG-TERM RESPONSES - Haiti - MONEY pledged by governments - 'CASH FOR WORK' helped clear rubble - FARMERS supported to grow crops - SCHOOLS rebuilt
CHRISTCHURCH - date and location in CHRISTCHURCH (new Zealand) February 22nd 2011
CHRISTCHURCH - causes (plates) CONSERVATIVE BOUNDARY - pacific plate and Indo-Australian plate. 6.3 on Richter scale
EFFECTS - Christchurch - 185 DEATHS - 1500 INJURED - Canterbury television building and cathedral crumbled - liquification of roads - Christchurch couldn't hold rugby matches (damages economy)
IMMEDIATE responses - Christchurch -Vulnerable people cared for -temporary toilets for 30,000 people -areas labelled colours based on damage -INTERNATIONAL AID ($7 million)
LONG-TERM responses - Christchurch - provided temporary housing -WATER AND SEWAGE restored by august -roads and houses cleared of SILT
what is a tsunami? an earthquake in the ocean that causes extremely high waves
CASE STUDY - tsunami (where and when) - off west coast of Sumatra (Indian ocean) - 26th December 2004
sumatra tsunami - causes (plates) DESTRUCTIVE BOUNDARY indo-Australian plate subducted Eurasian plate 9.0 on richter
EFFECTS - sumatra tsunami - 260,000 people dead - 120,000 people missing - disease spread - 90% of fishing ports lost (big industry) - farmland contaminated (salt water) - drinking water contaminated
RESPONSES - sumatra tsunami - many countries gave financial aid - non government organistions gave airline tarpaulins - medical teams helped physically and mentally injured people - Tsunami warning system set up
predict, protect, prepare an earthquake - Temporary banks - Earthquake drills - Sturdy buildings - Looking at previous earthquake history or tremors (unreliable)
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