The Coastal Environment

Sarah Mercer
Flashcards by Sarah Mercer, updated more than 1 year ago
Sarah Mercer
Created by Sarah Mercer over 5 years ago


Flashcards on The Coastal Environment, created by Sarah Mercer on 12/02/2015.

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Question Answer
Unit 1.1 =The Coast a Multi-use area. Case study = Hampshire, UK. The coast can be used in an economic, social or environmental way. Economic = Jobs and industry, e.g. ExxonMobil oil refinery. Social = Housing and roads e.g. Lymington and Cowes (marinas, hotels, camping etc.) Environmental = e.g. Keyhaven Nature Reserve
Unit 1.2 = Coastal areas and economic development. Case study = Dubai or Bahia, Brazil. Dubai - Duty-free shopping centre for international travellers -Dubailand = 24 resorts and shopping malls -Resort airport with golf courses, swimming pools and private beach -Largest indoor skiing dome in the world
Unit 1.3 = How physical processes shape the coastline. Marine Erosion. Abrasion - sand and pebbles are hurled at the cliff face. Attrition - sand and pebbles are constantly hitting each other and they wear down. Hydraulic action - the waves crash against the cliff face and the sheer force breaks it down.
1.3 = How physical processes shape the coastline. Weathering. Corrosion - the sea water is corrosive and increases the size of cracks and joints. When it evaporates crystals are formed and push the rocks apart. Wetting and drying - soft rocks expand when they are wet and contact when they dry. This weakens the rock.
unit 1.4 = Landforms associated with coastal erosion. Case Study = Holbeck Hotel, Scarborough. Cracks, notches, arches, stacks and stumps are formed due to coastal erosion. Rainfall causes soft coastlines to have landslides and fall into the sea. The Holbeck Hotel was on a coast and it began to fall into the sea.
1.5 = Landforms created by coastal deposition.
1.5 (continued) = Landforms created by coastal deposition. Case Study = Hurst castle spit, Hampshire. Hurst Castle spit developed through longshore drift. It is over 2km long. the area includes: -Keyhaven Nature reserve -TidaL Lagoon -Mudflats -Groynes -Salt Marsh -Lighthouse -Hurst Castle
1.6 = Protecting coastal areas from natural processes. Case study = Wessex coastline. Hard engineering - Using man-made objects (mostly) to put a physical barrier in front of the area that needs protecting. Soft engineering - Natural methods, using the sand top stop the water eroding the beach.
1.7 = A tale of two villages. Case study = Happisburgh and Sea Palling. Both of these areas believed that they deserved to have their area protected but it was only available to protect one. Sea Palling got a sea wall, however a few years later the beach had disappeared and the sea wall was being directly attacked by storms.
1.7 (continued) = A tale of two villages. Case study = Happisburgh and Sea Palling. To protect the areas 100,000 tonnes of boulders were placed in front of the sea wall. 1 million cubic metres of sand brought in to replenish the beach and offshore reefs. The cliffs at Happisbourgh are retreating at an average of 10-15 metres a years.
1.8 = Using hard engineering to protect the coast. Case study = Ventor, Isle of Wight. Rock armor - large rocks placed at the front of the cliffs. Sea wall - Reinforced concrete structures to create a rigid barrier. Revetments - Open structures made of wood hat stretch along the beach to absob the wave energy.
1.8 (continued) = Using hard engineering to protect the coast. Case study = Ventor, Isle of Wight. Gabions - Steal cages filled with rocks stacked in front of cliffs. Offshore breakwater - Rocks etc, built into offshore bars to make waves break before they hit the beach. Groynes - Wooden or concrete structures made to break waves before they hit the beach.
1.9 = Protecting the coastline: beach replenishment. Case study = Pevensey Bay, East Sussex. Beach replenishment - Beach reprofiling - Beach recycling -
1.10 = Managing fragile coastal environments. Case Study = St Lucia and the Great Barrier Reef. St Lucia has a zoning system to reduce conflict in the area. For example, there is no fishing in the same area as the marine reserves and there is no activity areas (e.g. water skiing) near the protected areas.
1.11 = Using the natural environment to reduce the threat of flooding. Case study = Wallasea Wetlands, Essex. Managed coastal retreat is a more natural way of protecting an area. It works by letting low lying areas to flood up to a new line of defense inland. Salt Marshes form on the flooded area and protects the area. This was used at Wallasea because the old sea wall kept needing repairs and it wasn't worth it. Instead they let the salt marsh form.
1.12 = Managing the coastal zone. Case study = Mediterranean sea. The Mediterranean sea has a lot of pressures. For example: -rising sea levels -lots of countries -increased urbanisation -damage to environments
1.12 (continued) = Managing the coastal zone. Case study = Mediterranean sea. They tried to resolve the conflicts by using the Blue Plan. The aim was to clean up the Mediterranean by 2020. Reccomendations included: -10% protected environments -reduce building development -develop inland tourism -treat all waste water
1.13 = Planning for rising sea levels. Climate change is likely to raise sea levels, bring more rain in the winter, bring more winter storms etc. The Response Project is used to make decisions about future coastal planning and development. Stage 1 - Collect background information. Stage 2 - Assessing the risks of rising sea levels. Stage 3 - Offering guidance to planners and decision makers.
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