Estonian in multilingual Baltic Sea Europe

Shrimp Scandol
Flashcards by Shrimp Scandol, updated more than 1 year ago
Shrimp Scandol
Created by Shrimp Scandol over 5 years ago
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Question Answer
What can signs tell the sociolinguistic landscape user about the place? 1. which languages are used 2. minority languages in contested areas 3. which languages are not used 4. who is the target of the text? 5. who is the author
What is the role of sociolinguistic landscapes in contact linguistics? 1. use of more than one language in a community 2. when, where used 3. contact between languages e.g borrowings, code switching 4. diglossia of status
What is the top-down vs. bottom-up approach? top-down: government mandated e.g. official language bottom up: everything else e.g. language used in shops
How can linguistic landscape date lead to a better understanding of language diversity and literacy practices - which languages are used in which domains - diversity of languages in area - which languages are written, which spoken - power balance between languages
What is language ecology and what are its central concepts? - the study of interactions between any given language and its environments 1) environment: territory populated by speakers, characterised by a distinct language regime from another region 2) modes of bilingualism (A, Ab, AB, aB) 3) language as an autopoietic system: groups evolve their culture through history and interaction between other groups, genetically, linguistically and culturally self perpetuating -> ethnic cultures adapt to their environment historically and functionally
What are the main types of interethnic contact? 1) dominance leads to (L)anguage, (C)ultural and (I)dentity shift 2) bordering heaving borrowing, with small status differences, mutual convergence culturally and linguistically
What are the main periods in the development of the Estonian linguistic environement <1200: prehistory 1220-1550: Teutonic governance 1550-1700: Swedish government 1700-1860: Baltic Special Order 1860-1880: National Awakening 1880-1920: Russification 1920-1940: Nation State 1944-1990: Soviet governance 1990- now: globalisation
What is ethnolinguistic vitality and how does it affect sustainability? - the potential to behave as a distinctive collective identity - subjective, constructed and manipulated -high vitality: ethnocentrism, conflicting inter group relations - low vitality: low self esteem, assimilation, marginalisaion
What is perceived strength differential and how does it affect vitality? - an important source of collective self esteem and valued social identity - people strive for positive social identity HV: positive collective identity, high self esteem LV: opposite
What is interethnic discordance and how does it affect vitality? - how legitimate are the inter group power relations? how high is distrust towards the other group? - HV: high discordance - LV: opposite
What is inter group distance and how does it affect vitality? - racial, linguistic, religious and cultural dissimilarities - larger the distance, more costly to shift identity - HV: large dissimilarities, high ethnic distinctiveness - LV: opposite
Vitalities in the BSR? - EE sees RU as a weak group - LT sees RU as strong - LT feeling towards PL not same reversed - RU in LT likely to continue identity shift -LV and RU is unstable, could lead to integration or separation
What is the Finno-Ugric language family? - languages spoken predominately around the Gulf of Finland - approx 7m speakers (finno part) - smaller languages dying out - traditional grouping of all languages in Uralic language family
Which languages belong to the Finnic languages Biggest: Finnish, Estonian Smaller: Ingrian, Karelian, Veps, Võro, Seto
What are the most characteristic features of Estonian language? 1. absence of grammatical gender 2. no def or indef articles 3. specific illabial mid-high central vowel õ 4. unique quantity system 5. no vowel harmony 6. 14 cases 7. verb has categories of voice, tense, mood, person and negation 8. lots of conjugation and declination types 9. absence of possessive suffixes and few personal endings 10. absence of habeo construction (e.g I have with allative case) 11. postpositions instead of prepositions 12. no future structure 13. SVO word order
What are the factors influencing language contacts (intralinguistic and social factors?) - intralinguistic factors: typological distance, markedness, relationships between elements e.g lexical borrowing, simplification - social factors: intensity of contact, incomplete mastering, attitude of speakers, vocab borrowing, transmission of grammatical structures
What are substrate, superstrate and abstrate? - substrate: a language that influences an intrusive language that supplants it - people abandon/less focus or importance their language for the new dominant language because of perceived opportunities -> assimilation superstrate: aspects of a higher status language that move to the lower e.g. DE loan words in EE adstrate: mutual influences of languages of equal status
What are some loanwords from Estonian? - German and Russian are the most important sources - also: Swedish, Finnish, English - müts, kleit (DE), pilka, pagar (SW) halva (RU) tagi (FI)
What are some dilemmas in LPP theorizing and research? 1) multidisciplinary field, no unified theory 2) comparative investigation v normal theorizing 3) plan vs implementation vs appropriation vs discourses vs practices 4) not just linguistic diversity but also social change (educational, labour, immigration, social policy) 5) does standardisaion promote homogeneity or create hierarchical heterogeneity?
How does Language Planning differ from Language Policy? What is a language political agent? -Language planning: deliberate, future focused systematic change of language code (often by gov) - language policy: designed by govs to encourage or discourage a certain language/s e.g. official language, status of minority languages -> usually a legal decision
Mention ethnic minorities in Estonia. Why is Russia not? - the Constitution and also the Cultural Autonomy for Ethnic Minorities Act defines the legal status and rights of minorities - b/c history? - ethnic minorities: UKR, BEL, FIN, Ingrians, Tatars, LV, POL, jews, LT, GER
What does the acquisition of language depend on? - language spoken at home - opportunity to practice 2nd language - internal motivation - reason the language is needed
What are the differences between the terms plurilingualism and multilingualism? plurilingualism: a person has competence in more than one language, can switch according to the situation multilingualism: situations in which more than one language exist side by side but used separatley
What are the advantages of multilingualism? - increase in cognitive abilities such as problem solving and memory - employment - cultural awareness
Can you name some famous polyglots? - Mezzofanti (114) -Lukashevitch (220) - Nurmekund (80) -Shakira (5)
According to CEFR, what are the competencies of language users or learners? - general competence: declarative and skills knowledge, existential competence, willingness to learn - competence of communication: linguistic competence - sociolinguistic - pragmatic
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