9 - Metabolic regulation in high-intensity exericse

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V B
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Define high intensity (intermittent) exercise (HIE) A continuous period of activity lasting between 10 seconds and 4 minutes.
Name three ways to investigate HIE 1) Non-motorised treadmill 2) 1 legged knee extension 3) Wingate test
Compare the peak power output from HIE and Vo2 max. During HIE peak power output that is reached is a lot higher than Vo2max.
What is the term for the peak power output that is over the Vo2max level? Supramaximal exercise
What are the main energy systems used during HIE? (3) 1) ATP/ADP system 2) PCr system 3) Glycolysis
Describe the ATP/ADP system. ATP reacts with ATPase, this releases a phosphate group (energy) leaving ADP. PCr, glycogen, myokinase then resynthesise ATP.
Describe the PCr system PCR is turned into creatine. Creatine kinase catalyses this reaction. This reaction generates a free phosphate group. Oxygen is required
What is the resting PCr concentration in muscle? How long can it regenerate ATP for? 75-90 mmol/kg dm ~ 10 s of maximal exercise
How is PCr resynthesised?
If there is not enough oxygen what happens? Oxygen becomes a limiting factor.
What is the glycogen resting concentration in muscle? What does this depend on? 300-700 mmol/kg dm Depending on diet and training status
How does glycogenolysis work? Glycogen is converted to glucose-1-phosphate (enzyme: glycogen phosphorylase) Glucose-1-phosphate is converted to glucose-6-phosphate (enzyme: phosphoglucomutase)
How does glycolysis work? Glucose-6-phosphate is converted to 2x pyruvate (enzyme: phosphofructokinase) 2 pyruvate are either turned into lactacte (enzyme: lactate dehydrogenase LDH) or into Acetyl CoA (enzyme: pyruvate dehydrogenase PDH)
What is more likely to be used as a key source of energy? Glycogen
Why is glucose unlikely to be a key source of energy? It only generates 2 ATP, glycogen creates 3. This is because turning glucose into glucose-6-phosphate costs an ATP.
What is glycogen+3ADP+3Pi converted to, using which enzymes? -> 3ATP + 2 lactate + 3H+ Enzymes: LDH, PFK, Phosphorylase
HIE increases ATP cytosol = an increase in ADP, what does this lead to? Myokinase (adenylate kinase) reaction
state the adenylate kinase reaction ADP + ADP -> ATP + AMP Enzyme: Adenylate kinase
If AMP increases by too much in the muscle what does this mean? It is toxic
How is AMP removed from the bloodstream? It is transformed into ammonia.
How long does muscle ATP contribute towards energy production during exercise? 2/3 seconds
How long does muscle ATP + ATP-PCr contribute towards energy production during exercise? up to 10 seconds
How long does muscle ATP + ATP_PCr + Aerobic glycolysis contribute towards energy production during exercise? 90 seconds
How long does muscle ATP + ATP_PCr + Aerobic glycolysis + 02 system contribute towards energy production during exercise? As long as the exercise lasts.
What happens to levels pre and post exercise for: ATP PCr Glycogen Glucose ATP stays constant pre and post exercise PCr decreases Glycogen Decreases Glucose increases due to an increase of GLUT-4
What fibre type has a higher PCr concentration? Type 2 has a higher concentration than type 1.
What fibre type has a higher PCr degradation? What does this show? Type 2 Type 2 fibres are recruited more during HIE
Between 0-6 seconds what contributes most to the ATP turnover rate? PCr hydrolysis
Between 6-15 seconds what contributes most to the ATP turnover rate? Glycolysis
Between 15-30 seconds what contributes most to the ATP turnover rate? Oxidative phosphorylation is most prominant
Can hormones regulate energy production during high intensity exercise? Why? No They are too slow
How is energy production regulated during HIE? Name the 5 things that regulate energy production Allosteric regulation ADP Pi AMP IMP Ca2+
What happens to muscle pH during HIE? Why? Muscle pH decreases due to lactic acid.
What happens to ADP and AMP during HIE? ADP & AMP increase rapidly then plateau
Explain the process of converting glycogen to acetyl-CoA. Glycogen -> glucose-1-phosphate -> fructose-6-phosphate -> fructose 1, 6-diphosphate -> 2xpyruvate -> acetyl CoA.
Which enzymes affect this chain of events and at what points? Glycogen phosphorylase alpha converts glycogen to glucose-1-phosphate PFK converts fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1, 6-diphosphate Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (PDH) converts 2xpyruvate to acetyl-CoA.
What are the factors that allosterically regulate glycogen phosphorylate activation during HIE. Ca2+ Mg2+ ADP AMP IMP Pi
What enzyme deactivates glycogen phosphorylase? Phosphorylase phosphatase
What enzyme activates glycogen phosphorylase? Phosphorylase Kinase
How do we explain glycogen phosphorylase for 3 0seconds of exercise?
How do we allosterically regulate pyruvate dehydrogenase activiation during HIE? How do we activate PDH? PDH phosphatase
How do we allosterically regulate pyruvate dehydrogenase activiation during HIE? How do we deactivate PDH? If there are high levels of ATP, citrate, Pi, Acetyl CoA, CoASH ratio.
What happens to PDH during 30s of exercise? First 15 s it rises 15-30 s PDH activity plateaus.
When repeated bouts of HIE were completed how many participants could resynthesise PCr? How long did it take? A quarter of participants It took 8 minutes.
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