GCSE AQA Biology 2 Cells & Diffusion

Lilac Potato
Mind Map by , created over 4 years ago

Mind map showing information about the structure of cells, specialised cells, cell organisation and diffusion

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Lilac Potato
Created by Lilac Potato over 4 years ago
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GCSE AQA Biology 2 Cells & Diffusion
1 Animal & plant cells
1.1 Animal cells have...
1.1.1 Nucleus

Annotations:

  • Contains genetic material that conrols activities of cell
1.1.2 Cytoplasm

Annotations:

  • Gel-like substance where most chemical reactions happen - contains enzymes
1.1.3 Cell membrane

Annotations:

  • Hold cell together & controls what goes in/out
1.1.4 Mitochondria

Annotations:

  • Where reactions for respiration take place - releases energy
1.1.5 Ribosomes

Annotations:

  • Where proteins are made - protein synthesis
1.2 Plant cells have the same plus...
1.2.1 Cell wall

Annotations:

  • Rigid, made of cellulose - supports & strengthens cell
1.2.2 Permanent vacuole

Annotations:

  • Contains cell sap - weak solution of sugars & salts
1.2.3 Chloroplasts

Annotations:

  • Where photosynthesis happens (makes food for the plant) - contain green substance (chlorophyll)
2 Diffusion
2.1 Definition

Annotations:

  • The spreading out of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentartion
2.2 Happens in both solutions & gases
2.3 The bigger the difference in concentration, the faster the diffusion rate
2.4 Cell membranes
2.4.1 Allow small molecules through (e.g. oxygen, glucose, amino acids, & water)
2.4.2 Don't allow big molecules through (e.g. starch & proteins)
2.4.3 Particles move randomly but net movement from high to low concentration
3 Specialised cells
3.1 Palisade leaf cells
3.1.1 Packed with chloroplasts - for photosynthesis
3.1.2 Tall shape - large surface area exposed down side for absorbing carbon dioxide
3.1.3 Thin shape - can pack lots at top of leaf
3.2 Guard cells
3.2.1 Open & close stomata in leaf
3.2.2 When plant has lots of water...

Annotations:

  • Guards cells fill with water & become turgid, making stomata open - gases can be exchanged for photosynthesis
3.2.3 When plant is short of water...

Annotations:

  • Guard cells lose water & become flaccid, making stomata close - stops too much water vapour escaping
3.2.4 Thin outer walls & thick inner walls
3.2.5 Sensitive to light & close at night

Annotations:

  • To save water - adapted to function of allowing gas exchange & controlling water loss within leaf
3.3 Red blood cells
3.3.1 Concave shape

Annotations:

  • Big SA for absorbing oxygen & helps them move smoothly through capillaries
3.3.2 Packed with haemoglobin

Annotations:

  • Pigment that absorbs oxygen
3.3.3 No nucleus

Annotations:

  • More room for haemoglobin
3.4 Sperm & egg cells
3.4.1 Sperm cells
3.4.1.1 Long tail & streamlined head

Annotations:

  • Help it swim to egg
3.4.1.2 Lots of mitochondria

Annotations:

  • Energy needed to swim
3.4.1.3 Carry enzymes

Annotations:

  • In head - to digest egg cell membrane
3.4.2 Egg cells
3.4.2.1 Huge food reserves

Annotations:

  • To feed embryo
3.4.2.2 Membrane can change structure

Annotations:

  • To stop more sperm getting in - offspring ends up with right amount of DNA
4 Cell organisation
4.1 Cell differentiation

Annotations:

  • Process by which cells become specialised for a particular job
4.1.1 Occurs during development
4.2 Tissue - group of similar cells

Annotations:

  • That work together to carry out a particular function
4.2.1 Examples of tissues
4.2.1.1 Muscular tissue - contracts to move
4.2.1.2 Glandular tissue - makes & secretes chemicals e.g. enzymes & hormones
4.2.1.3 Epithelial tissue - covers parts of the body
4.3 Organ - group of different tissues

Annotations:

  • That work together to perform a certain function
4.3.1 e.g. Stomach is made of...
4.3.1.1 Muscular tissue - moves stomach wall to churn food
4.3.1.2 Glandular tissue - makes digestive juices to digest food
4.3.1.3 Epithelial tissue - covers outside and inside of stomach
4.4 Organ system - group of organs

Annotations:

  • Working together to perform a particular function
4.4.1 e.g. Digestive system is made of these organs...
4.4.1.1 Glands

Annotations:

  • Produce digestive juices
4.4.1.2 Stomach & small intestine

Annotations:

  • Digest food
4.4.1.3 Liver

Annotations:

  • Produces bile
4.4.1.4 Small intestine

Annotations:

  • Absorbs soluble food molecules
4.4.1.5 Large intestine

Annotations:

  • Absorbs water from undigested food - leaving faeces
5 Single-celled microorganisms
5.1 Bacterial cells
5.1.1 Has cytoplasm, cell membrane & wall
5.1.1.1 No nucleus - strands of genetic material instead
5.1.2 Have flagella

Annotations:

  • Long protein strands - to move about
5.2 Yeast cells
5.2.1 Have a nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane & wall

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