Society and Culture ALL Definitions

Clare Lawson
Flashcards by Clare Lawson, updated more than 1 year ago
Clare Lawson
Created by Clare Lawson over 5 years ago


77 definitions

Resource summary

Question Answer
Acculturation Contact between different cultures that results in members of one cultural group adopts the beliefs and behaviours of another group.
Agents of Socialisations A person or institution that shapes an individual?s social development.
Authority Authority is best understood as the legitimate use of power.
Belief System A system in which members of the group share a commitment to a set of beliefs and values that systematically defines a way of perceiving the social, cultural, physical and psychological world.
Beliefs A set of opinions or convictions; ideas we believe in as the truth.
Change The alteration or modification of cultural elements in a society.
Commercialisation The process of adding value to an idea, product or commodity with the aim of selling it and making a profit. Commercialisation is about preparing the item for sale and making money from it.
Commodification A social process by which an item is turned into a commodity in readiness to be traded.
Commodity A marketable item or consumer object
Communication Technologies Technologies used in transmitting information and entertainment between senders and receivers across various media
Community A (usually local) social system with an implied sense of relationship and mutual identity among its members. As well as being locational, a community can be a group that shares a strong common interest
Conflict A perceived incompatibility of goals or actions.
Conformity When individuals behave in certain ways as a result of group pressure, whether real or imagined.
Consumption The process of selecting and using a product. Consumption involves a conscious decision to engage with a commodity
Continuity The persistence or consistent existence of cultural elements in a society across time.
Co-operation The ability of individual members of a group to work together to achieve a common goal
Cultural Diversity Appears as a society becomes larger and more complex, immigrant groups join the dominant culture, and subcultures form within the society. The more complex the society, the more likely it is that its culture will become internally varied and diverse.
Cultural Heritage The practices, traditions, customs and knowledge that define who we are socially and personally. Cultural heritage is an expression of the values that help us to understand our past
Cultural Relativism The idea that concepts are socially constructed and vary across cultures. Therefore, individuals and groups must always view other cultures objectively and not judge them using the values and norms of their own culture as a measure of right or wrong.
Cultural Transmission The transmission of culture ? such as traditions, values, language, symbols, cultural traits, beliefs and normative behaviour ? across and between generations in society
Customs Established ways of acting or cultural practices that are unique to groups in society.
Deindividuation When individuals lose self-awareness and self-restraint when acting within a group that allows more anonymity. W
Discrimination Treating a person or group differently, often in a negative manner, usually as a result of prejudice
Empowerment A social process that gives power or authority to people
Equality Occurs when individuals and groups within a society have the same chances of access to education, wealth, power, equal rights under the law, and so on
Ethical Ethics refers to moral issues of what is right or wrong. Ethical behaviour follows understood codes of what is morally right when undertaking any study of people or society.
Ethnicity An individual?s identification with, or sense of belonging to, an ethnic group. This is based on perceived common origins that people share
Evolutionary Change The process of structural change that creates a slow alteration in the institutions or social roles of a society that are then integrated into that society.
Family A social group characterised by (usually) common residence, economic cooperation and reproduction.
Gender The socially constructed differences between females and males. Social life ? including family life, roles, work, behaviour and other activities ? is organised around the dimensions of this difference. NOT BIOLOGY
Globalisation A process of integration and the sharing of goods, capital, services, knowledge, leisure, sport, ideas and culture between countries.
Hybrid Society A society that comprises a range of social and cultural influences and components, rather than having a homogenous identity.
Identity The sense of self. This can be viewed from the personal, social and cultural levels. Identity is formed over a period of time and is the result of interactions at the micro, meso and macro levels of society.
Ideology An organised collection or body of ideas that reflects the beliefs, values and interests of a group, system, institution or nation.
Institutional Power The power that exists in institutions and how it is used to control aspects of society.
Institutions The structural components of a society through which its main concerns and activities are organised. These structures provide stability and continuity for society.
Kinship Established relationships between individuals and groups on the basis of socially recognised biological relationships or marital links.
Localisation Where communities or societies respond to globalisation by adopting and adapting introduced ideas and practices to suit people?s needs in their local context.
Macro The ?big picture? ? the wider social structure, social processes and their interrelationships.
Meso The middle ground where individuals interact within groups such as schools, communities, church groups and neighbourhoods. Larger groups that interact directly with individuals.
Micro Where individuals? everyday actions and social interactions occur ? for example, within families and small-scale social groups.
Modernisation A process of dynamic social change resulting from the diffusion and adoption of the characteristics of apparently more advanced societies by other societies that are apparently less advanced.
Multiculturalism An approach to cultural diversity in society that promotes the view that cultural difference should be respected and even encouraged and supported.
Mythology A set of stories or traditions that serves to support a worldview or is associated with a group or historical event.
Norms Shared expectations of behaviour that are considered to be culturally and socially desirable and appropriate.
Personal Reflection The use and evaluation of personal experiences and values to demonstrate analysis and interpretation of data in the context of the research focus
Philosophy The underlying principle or set of ideas that contains a way of thinking and behaving that makes up a broad field of knowledge or doctrine of thought.
Popular Culture A shared set of practices and beliefs that have attained global acceptance
Power The ability or capacity to influence or persuade others to a point of view or action to which they would not normally agree.
Prejudice The attitude, usually negative, that involves prejudgements or preconceived ideas,
Primary Research Original information or research data collected first-hand by the person doing the research.
Racism An individual?s or group?s prejudice or discriminatory behaviours towards those from another ethnic or ?racial? background.
Research Method The term ?method? refers to the specific tools of the investigation, or the ways that data can be collected and analysed
Rights The social, civil and political rights accorded to individuals.
Ritual A series of actions or rites performed according to a prescribed order.
Secondary Research The researcher collects and collates existing information or other people?s research on a topic to be investigated.
Secularisation A process whereby religion loses its influence over the various spheres of social life.
Self Concept Composed of the various identities, attitudes, beliefs and values that an individual holds about himself or herself and by which the individual defines himself or herself as a specific objective identity: the ?self?
Social Class Those members of a society who occupy a similar position in the economic system of production.
Social Cognition The encoding, storage, retrieval and processing of information in an individual?s mind.
Social Construct A socially created aspect of social life. Social constructionists argue that society is actively and creatively produced by human beings rather than being merely given or taken for granted.
Social Differentiation As society becomes more complex, differences between groups are used to distinguish between them.
Social Exclusion The failure of society to provide individuals and groups with access to those rights that are normally extended to its members,
Social Mobility The ability of individuals and groups to move vertically within a social hierarchy with changes in income, occupation and so on.
Social Stratification A systematic way in which people or groups of people are ranked in society.
Socialisation The process by which individuals learn to become functioning members of society by internalising the roles, norms and values of that society.
Socioeconomic Status A measure of an individual?s class standing, typically indicated by income, occupational prestige, educational attainment and wealth.
Stereotype The preconceived view of the characteristics of a group held by individuals who are not members of that group.
Subculture A social or cultural group within a broader culture
Sustainability The required development to meet current human needs, whether economic, social or environmental, without jeopardising the needs of future generations
Symbol Symbols have the ability to culturally unify a group of people through their representation and meaning.
Technologies The tools that we use to assist our interactions in society.
Tradition The body of cultural practices and beliefs that are passed down from generation to generation
Transformative Change A process whereby personal and social structures and systems work to create broad-based social change that completely alters existing structures within society.
Values Deeply held ideas and beliefs that guide our thinking, language and behaviour. D
Westernisation A social process where the values, customs and practices of Western industrial capitalism are adopted to form the basis of cultural change.
Worldview A particular philosophy of life or conception of the world that is characterised by an organised and accepted set of ideas that attempts to explain the social, cultural, physical and psychological world.
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