GREEN CRIME

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Flashcards by ashiana121, updated more than 1 year ago
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A-Level A2 SOCIOLOGY (Crime and deviance: Globalisation) Flashcards on GREEN CRIME, created by ashiana121 on 01/07/2016.

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Question Answer
What is the definition of green crime? Crime against the environment
What can much green crime be linked to? Globalisation - the increasing interconnectedness of societies
The planet is a single __-______ Eco-system
Threats to the eco-system are increasingly ______ rather than local in nature Global
Give an example of this Atmospheric pollution in one society can cause acid rain that falls on another society, damaging buildings and contaminating water supplies
Also, threats to the eco-system are now usually ___ ____ rather than natural Man made
Who argues that in modern society we have adequate resources for all? Ulrich Beck
He argues that the massive increase in technology and productivity has lead to new... Manufactured risks - dangers that we have never faced before
Many of these risks involve harms to the environment and its consequences for humanity such as... Global warming caused by greenhouse gas emissions from industry
Like climate change and global warming, many of these risks are global in nature. and so Beck describes modern society as... "Global risk society"
There are two opposed opinions when discussing whether or not excessive pollution and other 'green crimes' are breaking the law. What are the names of these views? Traditional criminology Green criminology
How do traditional criminologists define crime? By criminal law - whether or not a law has been broken
How do traditional criminologists Situ and Emmons define environmental crime? "an unauthorised act or omission that violates the law"
What is an advantages of this approach? It has a clearly defined subject matter
How is the traditional criminology perspective of environmental crime criticised? It is criticised of accepting official definitions or environmental problems and crimes, which are often shaped by big corporations with their own interests at heart
Green criminology takes a more _____ approach Radical
Green criminology starts with the notion of _____ rather than criminal law Harm
Green criminologists : the subject of green criminology is... any action that harms the physical environment and/or the human and non-human animals within it, even if no laws have been broken
Why is the subject of green criminology much wider than that of traditional criminology? Many of the worst environmental harms are not illegal
Furthermore,. different ________ have different ____ Different countries have different laws
Why does this create a problem? The same harmful action may be legal in one country but illegal in another
What can green criminologists achieve by moving away from the legal definition of environmental crime? Green criminology can develop a global perspective on environmental crime
Which view is this approach similar to and how? Marxists view of 'crimes of the powerful' The powerful create the laws to serve the interests of the powerful and undermine the interests of the working class
Who identifies two views of crime? White
What are these two views? Anthropocentric Ecocentric
What is meant by anthropocentric? The view that humans have the right to dominate nature for their own needs Puts economic growth before the environment
Who, does White argue, adopts this view? Major, transnational corporations, nation states
What is meant by the ecocentric view? Humans and their environment are interdependent - environmental harm hurts humans also Both humans and environment liable to exploitation, particularly in global capitalism
Which view does green criminology take? Ecocentric
Which green criminologist classifies green crimes into primary and secondary green crimes? Nigel South
What is the definition of primary green crimes? Crimes that result directly in the destruction and degradation of the earth's resources
What are the four main types of primary crime? Air pollution Deforestation Species decline and animal rights Water pollution
How many tonnes of carbon are added to the atmosphere each year from burning fossil fuels? 3 billion tonnes
Carbon emissions are growing at _% per year, adding to global warming and climate change 2%
Who are the potential criminals of air pollution? Governments Businesses Consumers
Between 1960 and 1990, how much of the worlds tropical rainforest was destroyed? A fifth
Give an example for by what reason the rainforest was destroyed Illegal logging
What has much rainforest in the Amazon been cleared for? To rear beef cattle
Who are the potential criminals of deforestation crimes? The state who profit from forest destruction (logging companies and cattle ranchers)
How many species a day are becoming extinct? 50
How much of the earths species live in rainforests? 75-90%
Why is this a problem? The rainforests are being destroyed
There is also ___________ of animals and animal parts Trafficking
Also, old crimes such as ___ _____ are on the increase Dog fights
How many people lack access to clean drinking water? Half a billion
How many people die annually from drinking contaminated water? 25 million
What is threatening the worlds ocean reefs and fish? Marine pollution
Who are the potential criminals of water pollution crimes? Businesses that dump toxic waste Governments that discharge untreated sewage into rivers and seas
What is the definition of secondary crimes? Crimes that grow out of the flouting of the rules aimed at preventing or regulating environmental disasters
What are the two examples of secondary crimes? State violence against oppositional groups Hazardous waste and organised crime
States condemn _________ but are prepared to resort to similar illegal methods themselves terrorism
Give an example of when this has happened 1985 French SS blew up Greenpeace ship which was there to prevent green crime (French nuclear missile testing)
Disposal of toxic waste from chemical, nuclear and other industries is highly _________ Profitable
Why may businesses seek to dispose of toxic waste illegally? Due to the high costs of safe and legal disposal methods
Where is much toxic waste illegally dumped? The sea
Illegal waste dumping often has a __________ character Globalised
In some cases, where do Western companies ship there waste to be processed and why? Third world countries Lower costs and safety standards
What is estimated to be the difference in the cost of disposing of a tonne of toxic waste in the USA and in some Third World countries? USA - $2500 a tonne Third World - $3 a tonne
What may some transnational pharmaceutical corporations do if there products have been banned in the West? Offload them onto Third World markets
What does illegal waste disposal illustrate the problem of? Law enforcement in a globalised world
The existence of laws to regulate waste disposal in developed countries does what? Pushes up the costs to businesses Creates an incentive to dump illegally in Third World countries
Why may it not be illegal in some cases? Less developed countries may lack the necessary legislation outlawing it
What do both the strengths and weaknesses of green criminology arise from? Its focus on global environmental concerns
Green criminology recognises the growing importance of ____________ ______ and the need to address the harms and risks to both humans and non-humans Environmental issues
What is a disadvantage of green criminology? Broader concepts so it is hard to define boundaries Defining boundaries involves making moral/political statements about what is right/wrong This is a matter of values that cannot be established objectively
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