Chapter 12

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IS Exam 3 Flashcards on Chapter 12, created by aleaguirre on 11/04/2013.

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Created by aleaguirre almost 6 years ago
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Question Answer
Safe Harbor Self-regulating policy and enforcement that meets objectives of government legislation but does not involve government regulation or enforcement.
Cookies Small text files deposited on a computer hard drive when a user visits web sites
Web Beacons Tiny objects invisibly embedded in e-mail messages and Web pages; Designed to monitor the behavior of the user visiting a web site or sending e-mail
Spyware SW that secretly gathers information about users while they browse the Web; can come hidden in free downloads; tracks online movements, mines the information stored on a computer, or uses the computer’s CPU and storage for some task the user knows nothing about
Web Logs consist of one line of information for every visitor to a web site; usually stored on a web server
Clickstream Data data or information recorded about a customer during a web session such as what web sites were visited, how long the visit was, what ads were viewed, what was purchased, etc.
Social Engineering talking a person into revealing critical information that can be used to obtain personal information; using one’s social skills to trick people into revealing access to credentials or other information valuable to the attacker
Shoulder Surfing standing next to someone and watching as they fill out personal information on a form or listening as they verbally provide the information
Dumpster Diving searching the trash for important information that can help gain access to a company’s or individual’s important information
Mailbox Diving taking mail from your postal box
Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P) Was intended to provide standard for communicating a web site’s privacy policies to the visitor’s browser; User specifies privacy levels desired in browser settings
Monitoring tracking people’s activities by such measures as number of keystrokes, error rate, and number of transactions processed
Intellectual Property Intangible property that results from an individual’s or corporation’s creative activity; Involves copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets, and patents for “creations of the mind”
Copyright gives the creator exclusive rights, no one else can reproduce, distribute, or perform the work without permission, granted for the life of the author plus 70 years
Trademark protects product names and identifying marks (logos)
Trade Secrets intellectual work or product belonging to a business – not in the public domain (formula, device, pattern, etc.)
Patent protects new processes, designs; grants the owner an exclusive monopoly for 20 years
Software Privacy illegal copying of SW that is protected by copyright laws
Cybersquatting registering, selling, or using a domain name to profit from someone else’s trademark
Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) Makes it illegal to circumvent technology-based protections of copyrighted materials
Computer Abuse commission of acts involving a computer that may not be illegal but are unethical
Computer Crime/Fraud commission of illegal acts through use of computer or against a computer system – computer may be the object (target) or the instrument of crime
Spam Junk e-mail/unsolicited e-mail that promotes a product or service or makes some other type of solicitation
Digital Divide when those with access to technology have great advantages over those without access to technology
Ergonomic Issues health problems associated with the environment in which computers are used;Repetitive stress injury (RSI), Computer vision syndrome (CVS), Technostress, Role of radiation, screen emissions, low-level electromagnetic fields
Ethics Principles of right and wrong that individuals, acting as free moral agents, use to make choices to guide their behaviors
Five Moral Dimensions of the Information Age 1.Information rights and obligations 2.Property rights and obligations 3.Accountability and control 4.System quality 5.Quality of life
Profiling Combining data from multiple sources to create dossiers of detailed information on individuals
Nonobvious Relationship Awareness (NORA) Combining data from multiple sources to find obscure hidden connections that might help identify criminals or terrorists
Responsibility Accepting the potential costs, duties, and obligations for decisions
Accountability Mechanisms for identifying responsible parties
Liability Permits individuals (and firms) to recover damages done to them
Due Process Laws are well known and understood, with an ability to appeal to higher authorities
Ethical Analysis (5 Steps) 1) Identify and clearly describe the facts. 2) Define the conflict or dilemma and identify the higher-order values involved. 3) Identify the stakeholders. 4) Identify the options that you can reasonably take. 5) Identify the potential consequences of your options.
Golden Rule Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.
Immanuel Kant's Categorical Imperative If an action is not right for everyone to take, it is not right for anyone.
Descartes' Rule of Change If an action cannot be taken repeatedly, it is not right to take at all.
Utilitarian Principle Take the action that achieves the higher or greater value.
Risk Aversion Take the action that produces the least harm or least potential cost.
Ethical "No Free Lunch" Rule Assume that virtually all tangible and intangible objects are owned by someone unless there is a specific declaration otherwise.
Professional Codes of Conduct Promises by professions to regulate themselves in the general interest of society
Privacy Claim of individuals to be left alone, free from surveillance or interference from other individuals, organizations, or state. Claim to be able to control information about yourself.
Fair information practices (FIP) Set of principles governing the collection and use of information; Based on mutuality of interest between record holder and individual 
Notice/ Awareness (core principle) web sites must disclose practices before collecting data
Choice/ Consent (core principle) consumers must be able to choose how information is used for secondary purposes
Access/ Participation consumers must be able to review, contest accuracy of personal data
Security data collectors must take steps to ensure accuracy, security of personal data
Enforcement there must be mechanisms to enforce FIP principles