Caitlin Hall
Flashcards by Caitlin Hall, updated more than 1 year ago


Chapter 1

Resource summary

Question Answer
Adolescence A period of the life course between the time puberty begins and the time adult status is approached, when young people are in the process of preparing to take on the roles and responsibilities of adulthood in their culture.
Life cycle service A period in their late teens and 20s in which young people from the 16th to the 19th century engaged in domestic service, farm service, or apprenticeships in various trades and crafts.
Child study movement Late 19th century group, led by G. Stanley Hall, that advocated research on child and adolescent development and the improvement of conditions for children and adolescents in the family, school, and workplace.
Recapitulation Now discredited theory that held that the development of each individual recapitulates the evolutionary development of the human species as a whole.
Storm and stress Theory promoted by G. Stanley Hall asserting that adolescence is inevitably a time of mood disruptions, conflict with parents, and antisocial behavior.
Survey A questionnaire study that involves asking a large number of people questions about their opinions, beliefs, or behavior.
Stratified sampling Sampling technique in which researchers select participants so that various categories of people are represented in proportions equal to their presence in the population.
Random sample Sampling technique in which the people selected for participation in a study are chosen randomly, meaning that no one in the population has a better or worse chance of being selected than anyone else.
Menarche A girl's first menstrual period.
Emerging adulthood Period from roughly ages 18 to 25 in industrialized countries during which young people become more independent from parents and explore various life possibilities before making enduring commitments.
Lamarckian Reference to Lamarck's ideas, popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, that evolution takes place as a result of accumulated experience such that organisms pass on their characteristics from one generation to the next in the form of memories and acquired characteristics.
Early adolescence Period of human development lasting from about age 10 to about age 14.
Late adolescence Period of human development lasting from about age 15 to about age 18.
Individualism Cultural belief system that emphasizes the desirability of independence, self-sufficiency, and self-expression.
Collectivism A set of beliefs asserting that it is important for persons to mute their individual desires in order to contribute to the well being and success of the group.
Interdependence The web of commitments, attachments, and obligations that exist in some human groups.
Scientific method A systematic way of finding the answers to questions or problems that includes standards of sampling, procedure, and measures.
Hypotheses Ideas, based on theory or previous research, that a scholar wishes to test in a scientific study.
Sample The people included in a given study, who are intended to represent the population of interest.
Population The entire group of people of interest in a study.
Representative Characteristic of a sample that refers to the degree to which it accurately represents the population of interest.
Generalizable Characteristic of a sample that refers to the degree to which findings based on the sample can be used to make accurate statements about the population of interest.
Procedure Standards for the way a study is conducted. Includes informed consent & certain rules for avoiding biases in the data collection.
Method A scientific strategy for collecting data.
Peer reviewed When a scholarly article or book is evaluated by other scholars for scientific credibility and importance.
Informed consent Standard procedure in social scientific studies that entails informing potential participants of what their participation would involve, including any possible risks.
Consent form Written statement provided by a researcher to potential participants in a study, informing them of who is conducting the study, the purposes of the study, and what their participation would involve, including potential risks.
Closed question Questionnaire format that entails choosing from specific responses provided for each question.
Open ended question Questionnaire format that involves writing in response to each question.
Interview Research method that involves asking people questions in a conversational format, such that people's answers are in their own words.
Qualitative Data that is collected in non-numerical form, usually in interviews or observations.
Quantitative Data that is collected in numerical form, usually on questionnaires.
Ethnographic research Research in which scholars spend a considerable amount of time among the people they wish to study, usually living among them.
Ethnography A book that presents an anthropologist's observations of what life is like in a particular culture.
Reliability Characteristic of a measure that refers to the extent to which results of the measure on on occasion are similar to results of the measure on a separate occasion.
Validity The truthfulness of a measure, that is, the extent to which it measures what it claims to measure.
Experimental research method A research method that entails assigning participants randomly to an experimental group that received a treatment and a control group that does not receive the treatment, then comparing the two groups in a post test.
Experiments group In experimental research, the group that receives the treatment.
Control group In experimental research, the group that does not receive the treatment.
Interventions Programs intended to change the attitudes and/or behavior of the participants.
Natural experiment A situation that occurs naturally but that provides interesting scientific information to the perceptive observer.
Monozygotic (MZ) twins Twins with exactly the same genotype. AKA identical twins
Dizygotic (DZ) twins Twins with about half their genotype in common, the same as for other siblings. AKA fraternal twins
Correlation vs. causation A correlation is a predictable relationship between two variables, such that knowing one of the variables makes it possible to predict the other. However, just because two variables are correlated does not mean that one causes the other.
Longitudinal study A study in which data is collected from the participants on more than one occasion.
Patriarchal authority Cultural belief in the absolute authority of the father over his wife and children.
Filial piety Confucian belief, common in many Asian societies, that children are obligated to respect, obey, and revere their parents, especially the father.
Caste system Hindu belief that people are born into a particular caste based on their moral and spiritual conduct in their previous life. A person's caste then determines their status in Indian society.
Globalization Increasing worldwide technological and economic integration, which is making different parts of the world increasingly connected and increasingly similar culturally.
Bicultural Having an identify that includes aspects of two different cultures.
Resilience Overcoming adverse environmental circumstances to achieve healthy development.
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