Lecture One Week One - Introduction

Maddie McIntyre
Flashcards by Maddie McIntyre, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
Maddie McIntyre
Created by Maddie McIntyre almost 4 years ago


Introduction lecture to Joanna MacKichan's third-year Biomedical Science course at Victoria University in Wellington - BMSC335: Medical Microbiology. Trimester One, 2016.

Resource summary

Question Answer
What is Microbiology? - The study of life forms too small to see with the naked eye. - Study of micro-organisms.
What are micro-organisms? A large, diverse group of life forms that exist as single cells or cell clusters, or as acellilar but replicative particles (such as viruses).
What technological advance triggered the development of the field of Microbiology? The invention of the microscope.
Who was the first to view (and publish his findings) micro-organisms through a microscope? Robert Hooke in 1665
What role did Robert Hooke play in the development of the field of Microbiology? He is the first to have viewed a micro-organism through a microscope, which he built himself, and publish his findings in the form of detailed drawings. He observed fruiting fungi under a multi-lens compound microscope.
Who was the first to report observations of bacteria at the cellular level using a single-lens microscope? Dutch scientist Antonie van Leewenhoek in 1687.
Who is credited with constructing the first electron microscope which allowed us to view viruses? German physicist Ernst Ruska in 1933.
What role did Louis Pasteur play in the development of the field of Microbiology? - Discovered that living micro-organisms (in his case the mould Aspergillus) discriminated between optical isomers which suggested that some microscopic chemical activities were catalysed by micro-organisms, as opposed to being purely chemical. - He discovered that alcohol fermentation was a biologically mediated process - Disproved the theory of spontaneous generation. - Developed vaccines for anthrax, fowl cholera and rabies.
What is the theory of 'spontaneous generation'? An outdated theory that has been around since biblical times, Spontaneous Generation refers to the widely held belief that the micro-organisms which infested spoilt food arose spontaneously from non-living material.
How did Louis Pasteur disprove the theory of 'spontaneous generation'? - Pasteur predicted that micro-organisms in putrefying materials were descendants of cells that entered from the air or cells that had been decaying in the material to begin with. - Developed an experiment in which he created a 'swan-necked' flask (known as a Pasteur flask) and filled it with rich broth. He then heated the flask, and the broth, to sterilise the material inside. The liquid was allowed to cool and, because of the swan-neck shape of the neck of the flask, micro-organisms were unable to invade the sterilised broth - meaning the broth remained sterile for a long period of time. - Only after the sterile broth was exposed to micro-organisms again did it begin to putrefy.
Who is credited with demonstrating the link between microbes and disease (aka the 'Cell Theory of Disease')? Robert Koch
What role did Robert Koch play in the development of the field of Microbiology? - Demonstrated the link between microbes and infectious diseases (foundation for the 'Cell Theory of Disease') - Identified causative agents of cholera, anthrax and tuberculosis - Developed four criterion or 'postulates' for determining the cause of an infectious disease - Developed the techniques used for obtaining pure cultures of microbes - solid media
Who developed the concept of solid-media culturing? Robert Koch
How did Robert Koch develop the concept of 'Pure Cultures'? - Recognised (in his second postulate) that a suspected pathogen must be isolated and grown away from other micro-organisms in a lab culture in order to be properly determined as the causative agent of disease. - Used potato slices to obtain pure cultures at first, but eventually designed uniform and reproducible nutrient solutions with gelatin and agar.
What role did Edward Jenner play in the development of the field of Microbiology? - Carried out the first successful vaccination - developing the ancient practice of variolation. Infected a boy with attenuated cowpox to protect him from smallpox.
What role did Agostino Bassi play in the development of the field of Microbiology? - Proved that Silkworm disease was caused by a fungus - First micro-organism to be recognised as the cause of infectious disease (in 1835) - Contributed to the 'Germ Theory of Disease'
What role did Ignaz Semmelweis play in the development of the field of Microbiology? - Advocated handwashing to prevent transmission of child-bed fever between patients.
Who is credited with developing the first medical disinfectant and using it on patients? Joseph Lister in 1867
What are the four types of Cellular Microbial life? 1. Bacteria 2. Fungi 3. Algae 4. Protozoa
Aside from Cellular, what other micro-organisms are considered a form of Microbial life? Viruses (acellular)
What is 'The Cell Theory'? - Theory proposed by Theodo Schann and Matthias Schleiden in 1839. - "The cell is the basic unit of all living organisms"
What are the five processes a cell is capable of? 1. Metabolism. 2. Reproduction. 3. Differentiation. 4. Communication. 5. Self-propulsion.
In Microbiology, what does the term 'Population' refer to? Population: A group of cells derived from a single parental cell
In Microbiology, what does the term 'habitat' refer to? Habitat: Immediate environment in which a microbial population lives.
In Microbiology, what does the term 'ecosystem' refer to? Ecosystem: Collective term for all living organisms, together with the physical and chemical components of their environment.
What percentage of the average cell is water? Approximately 70%
What percentage of the average cell is chemical material? Approximately 30%
What are the six different categories of 'chemicals' that make up the chemical component of the cell? 1. Ions and small molecules. 2. Phospholipids. 3. DNA. 4. RNA. 5. Proteins. 6. Polysaccharides.
In terms of a cell, briefly describe the process of Metabolism: Metabolism: Uptake of chemicals from the environment, their transformation within the cell, and elimination of wastes back into the environment. Creates energy which is used by the cell for other processes - such as growth.
In terms of a cell, briefly describe the process of Growth: Growth: Using energy created by Metabolism, the cell uses chemicals from the environment to create new cells.
In terms of a cell, briefly describe the process of Differentiation: Differentiation: formation of new cells structures such as a spore, usually as part of a cellular life cycle or in response to environmental signals.
In terms of a cell, briefly describe the process of Communication: Communication: cell communicate or interact with one another primarily through the release or taking up of chemical signals.
In terms of a cell, briefly describe the process of Self-propulsion or movement: Movement/Self-Propulsion: many microbial cells are capable of motility, typically by self-propulsion. This allows cells to escape unfavourable conditions and exploit new resources or growth opportunities.
What are the two major groups or types of cell? 1. Prokaryotes 2. Eukaryotes
What categories of life are made up of Eukaryotic cells? 1. Animals. 2. Plants. 3. Algae. 4. Fungi. 5. Protozoans.
What categories of life are made up by Prokaryotic cells? 1. Bacteria. 2. Archaea.
Briefly describe the main differences between a Prokaryote and a Eukaryote: Prokaryote: No nucleus (genetic material tends to be located centrally in a nucleoid), no membrane-bound structures (organelles). Only frewe-floating ribosomes. Transcription and translation occur simultaneously. Often have a cell wall and/or flagellum. Eukaryote: Has a membrane-bound nucleus where transcription occurs. Translation occurs outside the nucleus after transcription. Has many membrane-bound organelles - most important (arguably) being the mitochondria. Has both free-floating and membrane-bound ribosomes. Does not necessarily have a cell wall (some do - e.g. plants).
What is the primary goal of Microbiology? To understand how micro-organisms function and, from this understanding, identify new ways in which their beneficial effects can be increased and their harmful effects be reduced.
Give (at least) three examples of the positive effects of micro-organisms: 1. Biogeochemical cycles. 2. Bioremediation. 3. Agriculture/Food production. 4. Biotechnology. 5. Basic research.
What is the relationship between poverty and disease? Positive linear relationship: poverty increases the likelihood of becoming diseased and also the effects of disease.
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