Organic Reactions

JemimaPM
Flashcards by JemimaPM, updated more than 1 year ago
JemimaPM
Created by JemimaPM about 5 years ago
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Types of Organic Reactions Mechanisms of Organic Readtions

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Question Answer
What is an addition reaction? A reaction in which two molecules add together to form a single product.
What is a substitution reaction? A reaction in which one atom or group is replaced by another atom or group.
What is an elimination reaction? A reaction which produces an unsaturated product by loss of atoms or groups from adjacent carbon atoms.
What is hydrolysis? A reaction in which a compound splits apart in a reaction involving water.
Describe homolytic bond breaking: When a covalent bond breaks, one electron from the shared pair goes to each atom (homolytic fission). This creates free radicals.
What are free radicals? Species with an unpaired electron.
Describe heterolytic bond breaking: When a covalent bond breaks, both electrons from the shared pair goes to one atom (heterolytic fission). This produces ionic intermediates.
When is heterolytic bond breaking favoured? In polar solvents, such as water.
What is a nucleophile? A negative ion or molecule with a lone pair of electrons that attacks positive ions or positive centres in molecules. They donate pairs of electrons.
What is an electrophile? A positive ion or molecule with an empty orbital that attacks negative ions or negative centres in molecules. They accept pairs of electrons.
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