Political parties - Definitions

clm3496
Flashcards by , created almost 6 years ago

Politics (Govt & Politics: People) Flashcards on Political parties - Definitions, created by clm3496 on 12/04/2013.

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Created by clm3496 almost 6 years ago
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Question Answer
Welfare-to-work: Welfare programs that boost employability skills and provide incentives for people to work.
Communitarianism: The belief that people are happier and more secure if they live within communities that have clear values and a strong culture.
Credit crunch: A reduction in the general availability of loans (or credit), usually due to an unwillingness of banks to lend to one another.
Structural deficit: That part of a budget deficit that stems from a fundamental imbalance between the government's tax revenues and its spending level.
Crowding out: The theory that an over-large state damages the performance of private businesses by depriving them of necessary resources.
Social liberalism: A commitment to social welfare designed to promote equal opportunities and to help individuals to help themselves.
Monetary stimulus: A policy that seeks to stimulate economic growth by reducing interest rates in order to make borrowing easier.
Fiscal stimulus: A policy aimed at promoting economic growth by allowing government spending to exceed tax revenues.
Faction: A group of like-minded politicians, usually formed around a key leader or in support of a set of preferred policies.
Catch-all party: A party that develops policies that will appeal to the widest range of voters, by contrast with a programmatic party.
Left: Political ideas that are based on generally optimistic views about human nature and favour social change; left-wingers tend to support liberty, equality an state intervention.
Right: Political ideas that tend to be pessimistic about human nature and oppose change; right-wingers typically favour order, authority and oppose state intervention.
Capitalism: An economic system in which wealth is owned privately and economic life is organized according to the market.
Ideology: An 'ism', a more or less coherent set of ideas, values and theories that help to explain the world and guide political action.
Conviction politics: A style of politics in which party policies are shaped by the ideological convictions of its leader.
Social justice: A morally justifiable distribution of wealth, usually implying a desire to reduce material inequalities (rather than absolute equality).
Nationalization: The extension of state control over the economy through the transfer of industries from private ownership to public ownership.
Paternalism: Acting in the interests of others who are unable to make informed moral decisions, supposedly as fathers do in relation to children.
Progressive taxation: A system of taxation in which the rich pay proportionally more in tax than the poor, usually based on graduated direct taxes.
Consensus politics: An overlap of ideological positions between two or more political parties; an agreement about fundamental policy goals that permits disagreement on matters of detail or emphasis.
Free market: The principle or policy of unrestricted market competition, free from government interference.
Individualism: A belief in the primacy of the human individual, implying that people are self-interested and largely self-reliant.
Collectivism: A belief in people working together and supporting one another, often (but not necessarily) linked to state intervention.
Privatization: The selling off of nationalized industries and other state assets, transferring them from the public to the private sector.
Minimal state: A state that only maintains domestic order, enforces legal agreements and protects against external attack, leaving other matters in the hands of the individual.
Social conservatism: The belief that tradition, order and a common morality provide the basis for a stable and healthy society.
Permissiveness: The willingness to allow people to make their own moral choices or to 'do their own thing' because there are no authoritative values.
Euroscepticism: Opposition to the process of European integration, based on a defense of national sovereignty and national identity, Eurosceptics are not necessarily anti-European.
Adversary politics: A form of politics that is characterized by deep ideological conflicts between major parties; the parties offer rival ideological visions.
Third way: The idea of an alternative to both 'top down' Keynesian social democracy and the free-market policies of Thatcherism.