Managing earthquakes

Jess Molyneux
Flashcards by Jess Molyneux, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
Jess Molyneux
Created by Jess Molyneux almost 4 years ago
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Description

Revision notes on the prediction and response measures used to combat the impact of earthquakes

Resource summary

Question Answer
To what extent can earthquakes be predicted? Scientists can predict where an earthquake is likely, within roughly a 30 year time span
List 8 methods or equipment which can help to predict an earthquake. Radon gas sensors Satellite surveying / remote sensing Laser reflector Levelling Seismometer Gravity meter - Magnetometer - Electrical resistivity meter Strain meter Water table level
What role does a radon gas sensor play? Measures increases in radon - an inert gas which is released from rocks (e.g. granite and limestone) at a faster rate when fractured
What role do satellite surveying and remote sensing play? (Bonus: how accurate are they? how is the information received?) Surveying plate movement and minute surface changes Accuracy down to a few cm Data from satellites to Earth - processed by computers
What role do laser reflectors and levelling play? Allow a person to survey movement across a fault line
What role does a seismometer play? (Bonus: how does this contribute to the bigger picture?) Receives and records shockwaves from epicentre Feeds data to central computer Analysis of patterns with data on past earthquakes
What role do gravity meters, magnetometers and electrical resistivity meters play? Measure changes in gravity and magnetic / electrical properties of rocks which all change as stress builds up
What role does a strain meter play? (Bonus: why may this be useful in LEDCs?) Recorded stretching and compressing of Earth's crust Low-tech substitutes can be made
What role does a water table level play? Measures changes in the level of water in wells (which rises and falls as stress builds)
What other atmospheric information may be useful in predicting earthquakes? (Hint: visible light, infra-red) (Bonus: give an example) Low frequency electromagnetic activity Changes in the ionospheric electron density and temperature September 2004: South Japan earthquake
Give ways in which Japanese local authorities attempt to lessen the impact of an earthquake relating to buildings. (Hint: there are 5) Earthquake resistance standards for new buildings Single-storey buildings Soft-storey bases (cushioning effect) June 2007: Law with safety regulations Fire resistant buildings
Give other ways in which Japanese local authorities attempt to lessen the impact of an earthquake. Raise public awareness about disaster prevention Improve earthquake prediction Advanced fire fighting facilities Areas of Specified Observation designated (e.g. Kobe)
Give an example of the fatal effects of non-earthquake proof structures. Cypress viaduct Oakland, San Francisco Loma Prieta earthquake 40 people killed
What solution may be put in place to make existing structures (e.g. freeways) more earthquake proof? 'Retro-fitting' Cross bracing - metal crosses support structure Jackets - around concrete pillars
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