Theories and Concepts

Tamara Jacob
Flashcards by Tamara Jacob, updated more than 1 year ago
Tamara Jacob
Created by Tamara Jacob over 5 years ago
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Midterm Exercise physiology Flashcards on Theories and Concepts , created by Tamara Jacob on 02/24/2016.

Resource summary

Question Answer
What is DOMS and what muscle contraction is predominantly affected by it? Delayed-onset Musucle Soreness -ECCENTRIC contraction
Explain the SLIDING-FILAMENT THHEORY (Relaxed state) -No actin-myosin interaction at binding site -Myosin filaments overlap
Sliding-filament theory (Contracted state) -Myosin pulls actin to sarcomere center -Filaments slide passed each other -SARCOMERES-myofibrils-muscle fibers all shorten
Sliding-filament theory cont. -Myosin detaches from active site -Myosin head rotates back -Myosin attaches to another one *process continues until Z-disk reach myosin filaments*
What is the cause of FATIGUE in 10,000m run; 400m run? 10,000m depletion of intramuscular glycogen 400m increase in H +
What is the LACTATE THRESHOLD? Workload increases = expensive increase in lactate
Size-principle & motor neuron relationship Neurons are recruited by size Type I (smaller) recruited first Type IIa, IIx (larger) recruited second
How is lactate produced in high-intensity exercise? Glyconeogensis Oxidative fuel
Isometric contractions occur at ______ velocity of movement ZERO
Tricep and pectoralis major in the DOWN phase of a push-up is what type of contraction? Eccentric
ENDURANCE (type I) muscles have more mitochondria than POWER (type II) True
Examples of Energy systems in a given sport -running 150m : aerobic -10x 100m sprints, 20 sec rest : lactic -6 sets, 12 reps BP, 2 min rest : ATP -Javelin : ATP 5 sets of tennis in 4 hours : lactic
What is Motor Unit Recruitment Frequency of Stimulation? "Rate Coding" - twitch: smallest contractile response - summation: stimulus in rapid response -tetanus: continued stimulation
Motor Unit Recruitment Smaller fibers = Less force Larger fibers = More force
TYPE I Dark Meat Slow-oxidative Slow twitch -small -more mitochondria -more capillary density -more oxidative enzymes -less developed SR complex -less growth/ less than 300 fibers -more oxygen necessary for ATP -50% in average muscle -peak tension 110ms % -endurance athletes (Soleus muscle)
TYPE IIa, IIx White Meat Fast-oxidative glycolytic/ Fast glycolytic Fast twitch -Larger -Less mitachondria -less capillary density -less oxidative enzymes -more developed SR complex -more growth/ more than 300 fibers -25% in average muscle -power athletes -peak tension 50ms -fatigue quickly
Generation of Action Potential -Motor neurons dendrites (specialized receptors) -Action potential travels down axon to axon -Nerve endings release neurotransmitter (ACH) crosses synaptic deft * binges receptors to plasmalemma -RMR -70mV to +30mV
Length-Tension Relationship Optimal sarcomere length + optimal overlap -too short/ stretched = no / little force
Speed-force Relationship Concentric: maximal force development DECREASE @ higher speeds Eccentric: maximal force INCREASE @ higher speeds
Lactate Threshold Workload increase = expertise increase in lactate
Skeletal Muscle Contraction from Organ Molecule Pec Major - convergent Orbicularis oris - circular Deltoid - multiplennate Sartorius - parallel Biceps brachii - fused form Extensor digits rum longus - unipennate Rectus femoris- bipennate
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