CVD

Judah Morris
Mind Map by Judah Morris, updated more than 1 year ago
Judah Morris
Created by Judah Morris over 6 years ago
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1

Description

CVD

Resource summary

CVD
  1. Condition
    1. Ischaemia
      1. Causes Angina
        1. Class 1
          1. Pain with hard ex
          2. Class 2
            1. pain during mod ex
            2. Class 3
              1. limitation normal activ
              2. Class 4
                1. occurs at rest
                2. treament
                  1. surgery
                    1. CABG

                      Annotations:

                      • coronary bypass graft surgery 
                      1. PTCA

                        Annotations:

                        • baloon and stent 
                      2. lifestyle
                        1. diet
                          1. exericse
                            1. aerobic
                              1. 3-5days week
                                1. mod level
                                  1. 30-60min day
                              2. resistance
                                1. 2-3days week
                                  1. mod leve.
                                    1. 8-10reps/ 2-4sets
                                      1. full body
                                2. stretching
                                  1. 2-3days week
                                    1. 2-4 sets
                                  2. considerations
                                    1. contraindications
                                3. Medications
                                  1. nitrates
                                    1. convert niitrates to nitric oxide
                                      1. promotes dilation
                                        1. increase in blood flow to heart
                                      2. glycerly trinitrate
                                4. Hypertension
                                  1. Men 26.9%, women 19.5%
                                    1. causes blood vessels to scare
                                      1. less elastic
                                      2. Management
                                        1. Exercise
                                          1. 30min most days
                                            1. Aerobic 7/6 drop in BP
                                              1. Resistance training 3/3 BP drop
                                          2. Diet
                                            1. Stop smoking
                                            2. leads to
                                              1. Medications
                                                1. ACE inhibitor
                                                  1. block conversion of angiotensin 1 to 2
                                                    1. 2 is vasocontrictor
                                                      1. lowers BP
                                                    2. catopril
                                                      1. enalapril
                                                        1. ramipril
                                                      2. causes cough
                                                      3. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists
                                                        1. binds to specific receptors for 2
                                                          1. losatan
                                                            1. irbesartan
                                                              1. temisartan
                                                            2. no cough
                                                            3. Beta blocker
                                                              1. block activity of adrenaline at b receptor
                                                                1. prevents sympathetic acceleration of heart
                                                                  1. reduce cardiac ouput
                                                                    1. reduce BP
                                                                2. selective b1 receptors
                                                                  1. atenolol
                                                                    1. bisprolol
                                                                      1. reoprolol
                                                                  2. non selective
                                                                    1. cause brochoconstriction
                                                                      1. timolol
                                                                        1. pindolol
                                                                  3. Calcium channel antagonists (Blocker)
                                                                    1. decrease entry of calcium into heart
                                                                      1. effect cardiac contractility and conduction
                                                                      2. verapamil
                                                                        1. diltiazem
                                                                      3. Diuretic
                                                                        1. reduction in fluid load, increase urine
                                                                          1. lowers BP
                                                                    2. Artherosclerosis
                                                                      1. Can cause
                                                                        1. prolonged (20min)
                                                                          1. chest pain
                                                                            1. cells become hypoxic
                                                                            2. leads to
                                                                            3. MI
                                                                              1. leads to
                                                                                1. reduced capacity due to scaring
                                                                                  1. reduced ejection, stroke volume, bp response
                                                                                2. Coronary artery disease
                                                                                  1. plaque builds up
                                                                                    1. break off
                                                                                      1. blood clots forms on
                                                                                        1. leads to
                                                                                        2. Chronic heart failure
                                                                                          1. failure of LV or RV to pump sufficent blood
                                                                                            1. LV failure causes < CO LV filling pressure and LV hypertrophy
                                                                                            2. management
                                                                                              1. CABG
                                                                                                1. heart transplant
                                                                                                  1. reudction in fluid and sodium
                                                                                                    1. Exericse
                                                                                                    2. signs
                                                                                                      1. SOB
                                                                                                        1. feet swelling
                                                                                                          1. weakness
                                                                                                            1. weight gain
                                                                                                          2. PAD
                                                                                                            1. Occulsive disease of lower limb
                                                                                                              1. Cause intermittent claudication

                                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                                • painful cramping of leg or hip muscles 
                                                                                                              2. Stages
                                                                                                                1. 1: Asymptomatic
                                                                                                                  1. 2 intermiddent claudication
                                                                                                                    1. 3. pain at rest
                                                                                                                      1. 4. gangrene/ tissue loss
                                                                                                                  2. Risk
                                                                                                                    1. Low
                                                                                                                      1. Absense of dysthrymthia
                                                                                                                        1. absense of angina
                                                                                                                          1. normal bp/ hr during ex
                                                                                                                            1. functional capacity (>7mets)
                                                                                                                              1. resting ejection fraction >50%

                                                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                                                • % of blood leaving heart everytime it contracts 
                                                                                                                              2. Moderate
                                                                                                                                1. presense of angina at high levels (>7mets)
                                                                                                                                  1. mild ischamia during ex
                                                                                                                                    1. fuctional capacity <5Mets
                                                                                                                                      1. ejection 40-59%
                                                                                                                                      2. high
                                                                                                                                        1. dsyrhythmiais
                                                                                                                                          1. angina
                                                                                                                                            1. abnormal HR/ BP during ex
                                                                                                                                              1. presense of heart failure, MI, depression
                                                                                                                                                1. ejection <40
                                                                                                                                              2. Contraindictations for exercise
                                                                                                                                                1. hypertension
                                                                                                                                                  1. postpone
                                                                                                                                                    1. BP> 180/110
                                                                                                                                                    2. cease
                                                                                                                                                      1. BP >250/115
                                                                                                                                                    3. unstable Angina
                                                                                                                                                      1. hypotension
                                                                                                                                                        1. SBP drop of >20
                                                                                                                                                        2. uncontrolled arrhymthmias
                                                                                                                                                          1. uncontrolled tachycardia >120
                                                                                                                                                            1. uncontrolled diabetes
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