Pressure Groups - Definitions

clm3496
Flashcards by clm3496, updated more than 1 year ago
clm3496
Created by clm3496 almost 8 years ago
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Politics (Govt & Politics: People) Flashcards on Pressure Groups - Definitions, created by clm3496 on 04/15/2013.

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Think tank: A pressure group specifically formed to develop policy proposals and campaign for their acceptance amongst opinion formers and policy-makers.
Civil society: The sphere of independent bodies, groups and associations that operate outside government control (including families, businesses and pressure groups).
Social movement: A large group of people who are distinguished by common aspirations and a high level of political commitment, but often lacking clear organization.
Sectional group: A pressure group that exists to advance or protect the (usually material) interests of its members.
Peak group: A group that coordinates the activities of different pressure groups in the same area of interest; peak groups often work closely with government.
Promotional group: A pressure group that exists to advance particular values, ideas and principles.
Non-governmental organization: A not-for-profit group that draws members from more than one country and is active at an international level.
Insider group: A pressure group that enjoys regular, privileged and usually institutionalized access to government.
Quango: A quasi-autonomous non-governmental organization: a public body staffed by appointees rather than politicians or civil servants.
Outsider group: A pressure group that is either not consulted by government or consulted only irregularly and not usually at a senior level.
Functional representation: The representation of groups based on their function within the economy or society; examples include industries, employers, professions, workers, and so on.
Chequebook group: A pressure group in which activism is restricted to full-time professionals, with the mass membership serving primarily as a source of financial support (through subscriptions and donations).
Expert authority: Respect for people's views based on their specialist knowledge; to be 'an' authority rather than 'in' authority.
Policy network: Links between government and non-governmental bodies (including well-placed lobbyists, sympathetic academics, leading journalists and others) through which policy proposals are developed.
Direct action: Political action that is direct in that it imposes sanctions that affect government or the running of the country; direct action is often (but not necessarily) illegal.
Civil disobedience: Law-breaking that is justified by reference to 'higher' religious, moral or political principles; breaking the law to 'make a point'.
Elitism: The theory that political power is concentrated in the hands of the few, an elite, sometimes called a 'power elite'.
Cyberactivism: Political action based on the use of 'new' technology - the Internet, mobile phones, e-petitions, electronic voting, and so on.
Corporatism: The incorporation of key economic groups into the processes of government, creating a partnership between government, business and labour.
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