BMSC335 Lecture 1 Week 1

Maddie McIntyre
Flashcards by Maddie McIntyre, updated more than 1 year ago
Maddie McIntyre
Created by Maddie McIntyre over 4 years ago


Bachelors Degree BMSC335: Advanced Physiology Flashcards on BMSC335 Lecture 1 Week 1, created by Maddie McIntyre on 03/02/2016.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Name the four anatomical directions given to the class by Dr Kivell: 1. Dorsal. 2. Ventral. 3. Anterior. 4. Lateral.
Define the term 'Dorsal': Dorsal: Towards the back
Define the term 'Ventral': Ventral: Towards the front
Define the term 'Anterior': Anterior: Towards the head
Define the term 'Lateral': Lateral: Towards the side
Name the three 'planes' given to the class by Dr Kivell: 1. Horizontal Plane (upper and lower) 2. Coronal plane (anterior and posterior) 3. Sagital (left and right)
What are the functions of the Brain? - Movement - Senses (vision/hearing etc) - Learning and memory - Emotion and personality - Homeostasis and hormal control/regulation - Balance - Reflexes
Does the Cortex ever function alone? No - it always functions in association with lower centres.
Name at least five features of the cortex: - Believed to be the reason Human beings have higher brain function - Cover the surface of the brain - Have folds that increase the surface area of the cortex - Frontal cortex is important to understanding the consequences of your actions - Last part of the body to develop (finishes around 25)
What are the three major components of a Neuron? 1. Soma 2. Axon 3. Dendrite
What is a Soma? The main body of a neuron
What is an Axon? The extension from the cell body that thanks information away from the cell body
What is a Dendrite? Extensions from the soma that take information to the cell body, the axon and the axon terminal.
What are the features of the fastest neurons? - Large - Myelinated
What are the fastest neurons in the human body? - Motor neurons that control muscles, hair receptors, deep pressure and touch and pricking pain.
What are the slowest neurons in the human body? - Neurons that control crude touch and pressure, aching pain, tickle and cold/warmth sensation.
What is the synapse? Region where two neurons communicate (includes a pre and post synaptic terminal and the synaptic cleft)
Do all synaptic connections stimulate activity? No, some cause inhibition.
What are the 7 steps of Neurotransmitter action? 1. NTm synthesised from precursors by enzymes 2. Stored in vesicles 3. NTMs that leak from vesicles are degraded by enzymes 4. AP causes vesicles to fuse with pre-synaptic terminal and releases NTM into synaptic cleft 5. NTM binds to post-synaptic receptor 6. NTM binds to pre-synaptic receptors and inhibits further NTM release 7. Released NTMs are deactivated by either reuptake or degradation.
How do SSRI drugs work? Bind to the presynaptic receptor, preventing inhibition of NTM release (serotonin) or reuptake - meaning Serotonin remains in the cleft for longer.
What are the two types of NTM? 1. Small molecule 2. Neuropeptide
What are the features of a 'small molecule' NTM? - Fast - Recycled - Synthesised in cytosol of Presynaptic neuron - Four classes
Give an example of a Small Molecule NTM: - Acetylcholine (Class I) - Norepinephrine (Class II) - GABA (Class III) - Nitric Oxide (Class IV)
What are the features of a Neuropeptide NTM? - Slow - Potent - Prolonged (days/months/years) - Synthesised as large-protein molecules by ribosomes and then broken into smaller molecules - Transport down axon to terminal (can take a long time) - Not reused (lysis)
Name two examples of Neuropeptide NTMs: - Prolactin - Nerve Growth Factor
Do NTMs that cause sodium channels to open excite or inhibit the post-synaptic neuron? Excite
Do NTMs that cause chloride channels to open excite or inhibit the post-synaptic neuron? Inhibit
Is a chloride channel an anion or a cation channel? Anion
Is a sodium channel a anion or a cation channel? Cation
Define the term 'Nernst Potential': Nernst Potential: the Potential that exactly opposes the movement of an ion across the neuronal membrane
Define the term 'Spatial Summation': The sum-effect of multiple pre-synaptic neurons firing and causing an AP to be generated in one post-synaptic neuron.
Define the term 'temporal summation': The sum-effect of one presynaptic neuron firing enough times over a certain period of time in order to stimulate one postsynaptic terminal.
What are the three 'states' of a neuron? 1. Resting 2. Excited 3. Inhibited
What is the resting membrane potential of an average neuron? - 65mV
Does an excited neuron have a more or less negative membrane potential than a resting neuron? Less negative (usually around -45 mV)
Does an inhibited neuron have a more or less negative membrane potential than a resting neuron? More negative (e.g around -70 mV)
What does it mean when a neuron is 'facilitated'? The summated postsynaptic potential is excitatory in nature (less negative), but has not yet reached the threshold to generate an AP - easier to stimulate into producing an AP than a resting neuron.
What effect does inhibition of Ca+ influx have on the presynaptic terminal? Reduced neuronal excitation
What NTM plays an important role in Presynaptic Inhibition? GABA
What can decreased levels of GABA result in? Epilepsy
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