Kingdom Monera

james liew
Mind Map by , created over 3 years ago

Leaving Certificate Biology Mind Map on Kingdom Monera, created by james liew on 03/06/2016.

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james liew
Created by james liew over 3 years ago
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Kingdom Monera
1 All members of Monera are prokaryotes
1.1 Meaning they do not have a membrane-bound organells
2 Structure of Bacteria
2.1 Capsule is a dry layer and acts as an extra layer of protection
2.2 Cell wall protects and prevents the cell from expanding and bursting
2.3 Flagellum allows the cell to move or swim
2.4 Cell membrane retains the cell contents and controls what passes in and out of cell
2.5 Plasmid is a small loop of DNA that contains genes (which may cintrol antibiotic resistance)
2.6 DNA contains genes that control the cell
2.7 DOES NOT HAVE A NUCLEUS
3 Types of Bacteria
3.1 Spherical-shaped
3.2 Spiral-shaped
3.3 Rod-shaped
4 Bacterial Reproduction

Annotations:

  • Bacterial reproduction is asexual
4.1 Binary Fission
4.1.1 The loop of DNA replicates
4.1.1.1 The cell increases in size
4.1.1.1.1 The two identical loops of DNA move to opposite ends of the cell
4.1.1.1.1.1 Cell division occurs when the cell membrane and cell wall pinch in
5 Endospore formation
5.1 An endospore is a thick and tough-walled dormant and dehydrated bacterial cell formed during unsuitable conditions
5.2 Process of endospore formation
5.2.1 Conditions become unfavourable for bacterium
5.2.1.1 Cell undergoes asymmetrical binary fission (one cell is larger than the other)
5.2.1.1.1 The smaller cell is engulfed by larger cell
5.2.1.1.1.1 A thick wall (cortex) forms around enflufed cell
5.2.1.1.1.1.1 Outer coat forms around the cortex
6 Nutrition in Bacteria
6.1 Autotrophic nutrition is where the bacteria produce their own food
6.1.1 Chemosynthesis
6.1.1.1 make food by converting one chemical into another
6.1.2 Photosynthesis
6.1.2.1 make food using light energy
6.2 Heterotrophic nutrition is where bacteria obtain their food and nutrients from other living organisms
6.2.1 Saprophytic
6.2.1.1 live on and take in food from dead sources
6.2.2 Parasitic
6.2.2.1 take in food from a live host and usually harms the host
7 Food Processing
7.1 Batch Processing
7.1.1 Only a measured amount of nutrients are added
7.1.2 Bacteria act on substrate and experiences lag,log and stationary phases
7.1.3 Generally product is removed before decline phase
7.1.4 Advantages
7.1.4.1 It's a simple process
7.1.4.2 It allows small volumes of products to form
7.1.4.3 The micro-organisms grow naturally
7.1.5 Bioreactor is sterilised and process starts again
7.1.6 Product is separated from micro-organisms
7.2 Continuous -flow Processing
7.2.1 Nutrients are constantly added to the bioreactor at the same rate at which the product is withdrawn
7.2.2 Micro-organisms are kept at the log phase of growth
7.2.3 Product is constantly removed from the bioreactor
7.2.4 Advantages
7.2.4.1 No time is wasted
7.2.4.2 No need to sterilise bioreactor so often
7.2.4.3 Product formed more rapidly
7.2.5 Bioreactor is left open for inflow of nutrients and outflow of product
8 Antibiotics
8.1 are chemicals produced by micro-organisms that kill or prevent the growth of other micro-organisms
8.2 No effect on viruses
8.3 Overuse of Antibiotics
8.3.1 Antibiotic Resistance
8.3.1.1 When one bacterium develops a mutation that enables it to avoid effects of an antibiotic
8.3.1.1.1 This one resistant bacterium is then able to multiply