Rivers flashcards

katiehumphrey
Flashcards by katiehumphrey, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
katiehumphrey
Created by katiehumphrey almost 6 years ago
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GCSE Geography (Rivers and Coasts) Flashcards on Rivers flashcards, created by katiehumphrey on 01/14/2014.
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processes of erosion hydraulic action: force of water breaks rock particles away corrasion: rocks scrape against river channel wearing it away attrition: rocks smash into each other corrosion: water dissolves some rock e.g chalk/limestone
processes of transportation: the movement of eroded material traction: large particles pushed along river bed by water saltation: pebble-sized particles bounce along riverbed suspension: small particles (silt) carried along by water solution: soluble materials dissolve in water
course of the river upper - steep - narrow/shallow middle - medium - wider/deep lower - gentle - very wide/deep
features of a drainage basin tributary: smaller river joins main river source: where river starts in upland area e.g mountains confluence: point where two rivers join mouth: river flows into sea or lake
causes of flooding prolonged rainfall heavy rainfall snowmelt
flood managements dams and reservoirs channel straightening man-made levees flood warnings preparation flood plain zoning
the hydrological cycle shows how water moves around
infiltration water soaks into the soil
percolation water moves vertically down through soil and rock
throughflow water in the soil flows downhill
groundwater flow water in rock flows downhill
surface runoff water flows overground
channel flow the flow of water in a river
channel storage water is held in a river
groundwater storage water is stored underground in soil and rock
interception storage water lands on things like leaves and doesn't hit the ground
surface storage water is held in things like lakes, reservoirs and puddles
permeable rocks rocks that absorb water: chalk
impermeable rocks rocks that don't absorb water: granite
drainage basin the area of land drained by a river
drainage basins are separated by a boundary called a watershed - ridges of high land download__12_.jpg (image/jpg)
a drainage basin images__5_.jpg (image/jpg)
tributary smaller river that joins a main river
source where the river starts, usually in an upland area
confluence the point where two rivers join
mouth where a river flows into the sea or a lake
weathering in a drainage basin the breakdown of rocks where they are (material doesn't get taken away)
mechanical weathering the breakdown of rock without changing its chemical composition - freeze-thaw
chemical weathering the breakdown of rock by changing its chemical composition - carbonation weathering
biological weathering the breakdown of rocks by living - plant roots grow into cracks on the surface, pushing them apart
hydraulic action the force of water breaks rock particles away from the river channel
corrasion eroded rocks scrape against river channel wearing it away
attrition rocks smash into each other breaking them into smaller fragments
corrosion water dissolves some rock e.g chalk/limestone
traction large particles are pushed along the river bed by the force of the water
saltation pebble-sized particles are bounced along the river bed by the force of the water
suspension small particles like silt and clay are carried along by the water
solution soluble materials dissolve in the water and are carried along
deposition when a river drops eroded material - happens when a river loses velocity (slows down)
waterfalls and gorges are found in the upper course of a river download__13_.jpg (image/jpg)
interlocking spurs images__6_.jpg (image/jpg)
meanders: large bends in a river download__14_.jpg (image/jpg)
ox-bow lakes: formed from meanders g514_b.gif (image/gif)
flood plain the wide valley floor on either side of a river which occasionally gets flooded
levees: natural embankments along the edges of a river channel natural_levees.jpg (image/jpg)
deltas: low lying areas where a river meets the sea or a lake rivers slow down when they meet the sea/lake and deposit material - it builds up, the channel is blocked and splits up into smaller rivers: distributaries
types of delta deltargb250.jpg (image/jpg)
river discharge the volume of water that flows in a river per second - measured in cumecs
storm hydrograph download__15_.jpg (image/jpg)
peak discharge the highest discharge in the period of time
lag time the delay between peak rainfall and peak discharge
rising limb the increase in river discharge as rainwater flows into the river
falling limb the decrease in river discharge as the river returns to its normal level
factors that increase discharge and make the hydrograph steeper high rainfall intense rainfall impermeable rock previously wet conditions - saturated soil steep slopes less vegetation
factors that decrease discharge and make the hydrograph gentler low rainfall light rainfall permeable rock previously dry conditions gentle slopes more vegetation
urban areas have drainage systems and are covered with impermeable materials increasing discharge so hydrographs are steep rural areas have more vegetation and reservoirs decreasing discharge so hydrographs are gentle
human causes of flooding deforestation - more water reaches river channel urbanisation - buildings are impermeable increasing surface runoff
hard engineering to reduce flooding dams and reservoirs channel straightening man-made levees
soft engineering to reduce flooding flood warnings preparation flood plain zoning
hard engineering man made structures built to control the flow of rivers and reduce flooding
soft engineering schemes set up using knowledge of a river and its processes to reduce the effects of flooding
flood in MEDC: River Eden, Carlisle, 8.1.2005 heavy rainfall 3 deaths 3000 homeless 4 schools flooded some roads were damaged
flood in LEDC: River Ganges, India, July 2007 heavy rainfall 2000 deaths 25 million homeless 44 schools destroyed 10,000km road destroyed
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