OCR Computing: Chapter 2

Oliver Eaton
Flashcards by Oliver Eaton, updated more than 1 year ago
Oliver Eaton
Created by Oliver Eaton about 5 years ago
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GCSE Computing Flashcards on OCR Computing: Chapter 2, created by Oliver Eaton on 03/15/2016.

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Question Answer
What does CPU stand for? Central Processing Unit
What is the CPU? This is the heart of the computer, where instructions are Fetched, Decoded then Executed. This is responsible for processing information and controlling the computer.
Which cycle best describes the CPU? FETCH - DECODE - EXECUTE
In the CPU, What does FETCH mean? Stored in the memory RAM, instructions are fetched by data buses ready to be decoded.
In the CPU, What does DECODE mean? After receiving the instructions from the data bus, the control unit and ALU decodes the instructions ready to be executed.
What is the Control Unit? This manages the execution of the instructions so controls the flow of data within the CPU.
What is ALU? Standing for Arithmetic and Logic Unit: This deals with the calculations and logic gate calculations in order to decode instructions.
What are registers in the CPU and what are they used for? Registers are small storage locations within the CPU and mainly the program counter holds the address of the next instruction to be executed.
What are Buses and what are they used for within the CPU process. Buses can transport the data around different components of the computer, an example is to the memory. In the CPU process data/instructions are sent down the address bus to the memory where it then send the instruction down the data bus to the DECODE section.
What is Clock Speed? This is the amount of instructions processed within a second. A click/beat makes one instruction undergo the Fetch-Execute Cycle.
What is Clock Speed Measured In? Hertz (Hz)
Increasing the speed of the CPU is called Overclocking, it being faster is an advantage, but what are the disadvantages? Increasing the speed further than the specification of the manufacturer will cause the CPU's lifetime to decrease as well as the increased amount of energy needed to run the CPU thus increasing the heat emitted by the CPU.
Why do Fans or Heat Scores Need to be connected to the CPU? They help to control the heat of the CPU, alone these generate a lot of heat that can damage the CPU. The fan and heat score remove this heat so the CPU keeps cool.
What is a Clock Chip? A device inside the computer that controls the timings of the signals by sending out pulses.
If a computer is Duel-Core what does this mean? This is two CPU's containing Control Units, ALU and registers. They can work together or independently with each other and increase the power of the computer, the speed increases but doesn't double entirely.
What is the Cache Memory? The Cache is part of the RAM, and is the fastest memory to get accessed by the CPU. It contains regularly used files and data that can be quickly fetched. This cuts down the load-time.
What are the 4 types of Cache Memory? Memory Cache Disk Cache Processor Cache Web Cache
What does ROM stand for? Read Only Memory
What does RAM stand for? Random Access Memory
Properties of RAM Data can be READ AND WRITTEN: Files can be added and read on RAM. Its Volatile. Stores currently running programs and data.
Properties of ROM Data can be only READ: Meaning nothing can be added to it. Its non-volatile. Contains the boot-up sequence.
What does more RAM mean? (In terms of performance) Having more RAM means you can run more applications at the same time without the computer crashing.
RAM is Volatile, What does this mean? RAM needs electricity to function, if power fails then everything on the RAM is lost, like work or game progress that hasn't been saved. Volatile just means that it relies on electricity.
ROM is non-volatile, What does this mean? ROM doesn't require any power as no data is lost without electricity. This is why it contains the main boot-up sequence.
NOT GATE If 1 is inputted what is Outputted? 0 NOT Gates output the opposite to what is inputted. So if 1 is the input then 0 is the output whereas if 0 is the input then 1 is the output.
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