Bio 2nd Midterm

Omo Mora
Flashcards by Omo Mora, updated more than 1 year ago
Omo Mora
Created by Omo Mora over 5 years ago


Mrs. Sanders Bio 101

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Question Answer
What is Energy It is the capacity to cause change in a system or to do work. It comes in three forms, potential, kinetic,
Potential Energy Is the category of stored energy that an object has because of location, structure (also chemical energy arranged in molecules)
Kinetic Energy The energy of motion
What are the 3 differences between Kinetic and Potential Energy Potential has it's energy on location and structure while kinetic is motion
What are the principles of Conservation of Energy 1. Energy can't be destroyed 2. Energy can be converted from one form to another
In every energy conversion what does some energy get converted into Heat. Heat is kinetic and caused by the random motion of atoms. Heat decreases useful energy and causes entropy or disorder in the system
Describe the general ways in which breakdown of gasoline in an automobile’s engine is similar to the process of cellular respiration Both start with two molecules and they have to go through chemical reactions to get energy and they both have two byproducts at the end of the process. THEY BREAK COVALENT CHEMICAL BONDS and rearrange the atoms into lower energy molecules.
What does ATP consist of Adenosine and a triphosphate tail (Three phosphate groups) It's a nucleic acid
Why is ATP essential to living organisms Organisms can't break down high energy molecules directly and need ATP to provide energy. All cells need energy to move, grow and build chemicals that keep us alive. ATP gives us direct energy we need
What type of things can ATP be used for 1. Muscle Movement, 2. Movement in and out of cell (Transport), 3. Drive chemical reactions that require energy, and processes that require energy
What happens when ATP is broken down into ADP ATP is a high energy molecule that has three phosphates. Energy is released from the Phosphate bond and it becomes Adenosine with two phosphates. This is ADP and it is a lower energy molecule
How can ADP be converted back into ATP? ADP is a low energy molecule and needs to gain back it's energy. It also needs a phosphate to gain back and revert back to a ATP.
Metabolism Is the sum total of all chemical reactions that occur in an organism.
Hows do Metabolism work Each metabolic reaction requires the assistance of a specific enzyme. The enzyme lowers activation energy making everything more efficient and are able to produce more
Enzyme Are proteins that act as catalysts that increase the rate of chemical reactions by lowering activation energy. ( Input of energy required for reaction to occur)
Explain how enzymes are important in regulating metabolism Almost always enzymes are needed to have metabolic reactions
What type of organic molecules are enzymes They are proteins that act as catalysts
What effect does an enzyme have on the rate of a chemical reactions in a cell? The enzyme lowers the activation energy so it allows for more production and more efficient production. This makes enzymes vital and affects metabolism even in small amounts. An enzyme will catalyze thousand of molecules per second
How do enzymes accomplish chemical reactions with less energy They lower the activation energy of a reaction allowing for a decreased use of energy. The enzyme binds with molecule causing chemical or physical stress allowing for lower activation.
Does a particular enzyme affect many different types of chemical reactions, or just one type Only one enzyme can affect one chemical reaction. They have to work together in order to produce the products it needs.
Explain the relationship between an enzyme’s active site and the substrate it works on The active site is on the enzyme where the substrate (molecule) will attach to the enzyme and break down. The active site is where the bind and breakdown happen. An active site must fit the substrate
Is the enzyme used up in the chemical reaction it is involved in, or can it be reused The enzyme is not destroyed after the catalysis (separation of molecule) so the substrate is reused for the same chemical reaction and a new same molecule
What sorts of things can inactivate an enzyme Enzyme inhibitors make enzymes inactive. It includes substrate imposters or substrates that don't fit. Also an inhibitor that attachs to enzyme so that they enzyme shape changes and can't function.
Diffusion involves a net movement of molecules from where to where Molecules from an area where they are in high concentration to an area where they are in lower concentration
Diffusion Is the random movement of molecules so that they spread out evenly into the available space.
Why does diffusion occur The random movement of molecules from heat energy, Molecules tend to spread into the available space until equally distributed.
Explain how facilitated diffusion is different from simple diffusion across a membrane Facilitated Diffusion, which requires specific transport proteins that act as selective corridors through which diffusion can occur. Like ordinary diffusion, no energy is required. This has to go through a membrane while Reg. Diffsion doesent
Does Reg. Diffusion or Facilitaited diffusion either of these processes require an input of ATP energy from a cell No. Like ordinary diffusion, no energy is required
Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a membrane.
which way water will move across a membrane by osmosis is the diffusion of water from a higher water concentration (less dissolved particles) to a lower water concentration (more dissolved particles). water moves across a membrane by osmosis in a direction toward the higher concentration of dissolved particles.
predict which way water will move across a membrane by osmosis when a cell is placed into a solution of pure water (a hypotonic solution). Animal cells placed in pure water or other solutions with lower concentrations of dissolved particles (hypotonic solutions) than themselves will swell and burst due to osmosis of water into the cells
Osmoregulation is the control of water balance within a cell or organism. It's hard for animals but the cell wall of plants regulate water a lot better and prevents burst
Which way will water move across the membrane if a cell is placed into a concentrated (hypertonic) solution of salt or sugar water? Water will be moved into the solution out of the cell shriveling them up and draining the cell of water dying
Why is it harmful for an animal cell to be surrounded by pure water, but beneficial for a plant cell? Animal cells don't have a cell wall from the osmosis and the concentration of water. They have to have the same isotonic (particle) water. It's good for plants because they can soak up more water in the cell to survive and creates a pressure on the cell wall making it firm
Active transport Requires that a cell expend energy (by breaking down a molecule of ATP) to move molecules across a membrane. Cells must use active transport to move substances across a membrane from lower to higher concentration
What type of protein does Active Transport need requires a special carrier protein in the membrane
What two things are required for Active Transport that are not required for simple diffusion Active Transport needs energy from a ATP and a special carrier protein
Exocytosis is the secretion of large molecules within membrane-bound transport vesicles. (“exo” means to exit). The vesicle membrane just fuses with the cell’s plasma membrane to expel its contents
Endocytosis Takes material in by means of vesicles that bud inward from the plasma membrane. (“endo” means inside)
Cellular respiration is a chemical process that harvests energy from organic molecules like glucose, and uses that energy to produce the ATP that all cells need.
The process of photosythesis in green plants converts sunlight energy into a type of chemical energy, which is stored within the high-energy bonds in a molecule of glucose (or other sorts of high energy “food” molecules made by plants). They also make o2
Where does cellular respiration occur Mitochondria
What is the equation for cellular respiration. (it can go either way)
What is the eqaution for cellular respiration Can go either way
Where does photsynthesis occur Chloroplasts
What processes does the chloroplasts do They do cellular respiration and photosynthesis. They transform light into chemical energy and glucose as well as oxygen
What processes does the mitochondria do They only do cellular respiration. This turns oxygen and glucose into water and carbon dioxide
Autotrophs (self-feeders) or producers make their own high-energy organic molecules from inorganic nutrients (carbon dioxide and water), using sunlight as energy.
Heterotrophs (other-feeders) are consumers include humans and other animals that cannot make their own high energy organic molecules: must consume them.
What types of cells carry out aerobic cellular respiration (animal cells, plant cells or both)? Both do but plant cells are the only ones who can do photosynthesis. Aerobic Respiration REQUIRES O2
Are cellular respiration and breathing the same thing? No. Breathing allows fo the exchange of gases (O2 and CO2) so that the cells can perform cellular respiration.
When a molecule of glucose is broken down by cellular respiration, what role do the high energy electrons in the glucose play? The electrons are passed from a higher energy state to a lower energy state, and potential energy is released in the process. The release of this energy must be done in a step-wise fashion in order for it to be “harnessed” in a useful way and used to generate ATP.
metabolic pathway which is a series of chemical reactions in cells. Each step in the pathway requires a specific enzyme.
list the three main stages of cellular respiration in order Glycolysis, Citric Acid cycle, electron transport chain
Each chemical reaction or step in a metabolic pathway requires what in order for it ot occur It requires a specific enzyme
glycolysis a molecule of glucose is split into two molecules of a compound called pyruvic acid. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm
citric acid cycle (also called the Krebs cycle) uses enzymes that are dissolved in the fluid within mitochondria and completes the breakdown of glucose all the way to CO2, which is then released as a waste product.
Electron Transport. Electrons captured by NADH are stripped of their energy, until they are finally combined with oxygen to form water. The electron transport chains are embedded within the inner membrane of the mitochondria. Electron transport from NADH, down theElectron Transport Chain to Oxygen releases the energy your cells use to make ATP
When NAD+ accepts high energy electrons, it forms a high energy substance called___. NADH
Explain glycolysis process Glucose is broken down. It begins with a input of ATP to begin and makes two 3 carbon molecules. An electron attaches to the NAD which becomes a NADH. This high energy molecule is broken down into 4 ATP and 2 Pyruvic acids
What role does the NADH you named play in cellular respiration It provided the molecules needed to create ATP and begin the cellular respiration cycle. It is used in nearly all the cycles of Cellular Respiration.
The first stage of cellular respiration is called _________. Glycolysis
Where does glycolysis occurs in what part of the cell Cytoplasm
What is the net gain of ATP molecules in Glycolysis 4 ATP and a net gain of two after you subtract the two you put into the system to begin with
What chemical is the end product of glycolysis Pyruvic Acid, Co2, and 4 atp (2 net ATp)
What happens to pyruvic acid before it enters the Citric Acid Cycle It loses a carbon that exits as a CO2 and becomes acetic acid. The acetic acid attaches to an enzyme to make acetyl Coa and produces NADH.
What type of cells can carry out this cellular respiration plant, animal bacterial, or all three all of them can
This process ( before citrus acid cycle) starts with ___________and results in the production of a two carbon compound called _____________. 1. Pyruvic Acid 2. Acetic Acid
The third carbon (before citric acid cycle) is released in the form of ________. CO2
(Befor citric acid cycle)More high energy electrons and Hydrogen are transferred to ________ to form a high energy substance called ___________. 1. Acetyl COa 2. NADH
WHat role does coenzyme a play in the process before the citic acid cycle coenzyme a joins with acetic acid to create acetyl coa that makes the nadh
The carbons that enter the citric acid cycle in the form of acetate (or acetyl co A) are eventually released as ________ co2
(Citric Acid Cycle) A small amount of _______ is produced which provides readily usable energy to the cell, but most of the energy from the original glucose molecule is captured by electron carriers called ____________ 1. ATP 2. Nadh and fadh2
What does FADH2 and NAdh from the citric acid cycle do to the Electron transport system It donates it's high-energy electrons to the electron transport system
Where does the Citric Acid Cycle occur Mitochondria in the presence of oxygen
What other types of molecule must be present in order for it to occur? (Citric Acid Cycle) oxygen
What are the inputs of Citric Acid cycle Acetic acid, adp+p, 3 NAD+, and FAD
Describe where the electron carriers of the Electron Transport Chain are located The molecules of ETS are built into the inner membranes of mitochondria
What role does NADH play in the ETS The electrons from the NADH are taken and processed in the system.
and in which stages of cellular respiration was NADH produced Glycolysis and after citric acid cycle
What is the end product of the ets Water and ATP
How are Hydrogen ions (H+) important to the functioning of the ETS? They flow through the membrane and release energy. They flow through the ATP synthase and takes the energy and then synthesizes ATP
What does ATP synthase do They synthesize ATP (create)
(ETS) What chemical is the final electron acceptor, and what final product is produced The final acceptor is oxygen and it bonds with hydrogen to make a final product of H2O
How much ATP can be produced from a molecule of glucose by cellular respiration 32
Comparre Cellular Respiration to the amount of ATP produced by fermentation CR makes 32 while fermentation makes 2 ATP
Fermentation It is a Anaerobic proccess (without oxygen) and makes 2 atp in glycolysis
In which stage of stage respiration is most of the ATP produced ETS
Explain where each of the chemicals shown below enters into or is produced by the process of cellular respiration: C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O 1. Glucose 2. Oxygen 3. Co2 - Citirc Acid Cycle 4. ETS (water)
Explain in general terms how other high energy food molecules besides glucose (such as polysaccharides, fats and proteins) can be broken down to produce ATP energy. They are broken down into monomers and they will enter the different stages of respiration
Describe the process of fermentation in muscle cells. It's glycolysis but hte end products are lactic acid instead of pyruciv
Which part of cellular respiration does it involve (Fermentatoion) Glycolysis
Why do muscle cells sometimes carry out fermentation When not enough oxygen is reaching the muscle. The lactic acid builds (soreness)
What are the end products of fermentation 2 atp and 2 lactic acid
Describe the same things for anaerobic fementation carried out by yeast cells and other microorganisms They do alcholic fermentation. It's glycolysis but the end products ethyl alcohol and co2
Explain what energy is is the ability to perform work or cause change
describe several different types of energy. 1. Potential based on location and structure as well as chemical energy 2. Kinetic is motion energy includes heta energy
What types of organisms carry out photosynthesis Chloroplasts
Explain several ways that humans use the products of photosynthesis. Plants are food for organisms we eat. They produce oxygen and they keep the life cycle going and create usable energy from the sun
thylakoid membranes Chloroplasts contain stacks of membranes called tm
chlorophyll. the pigment in thylakloid membranes. They capture light and convert light energy into chemical energy
write the overall chemical equation for photosynthesis.
Describe what photosynthesis accomplishes with respect to converting energy from one form to another Photosyht has two processes the light reactions which convert light to chemical enerrgy and the calvin cycle which uses the chemical energy to make glucosse
For the Light Reactions: where does this process occur Chloroplasts
For the Calvin Cycle: where does this process occur chloroplasts
What “input” is required in order for the light reactions to occur You need light and water for light reactions
What products are formed in the light reactions o2 and ATP and NADH are formed
How is the O2 produced in a light reaction A H20 molecuule is broken down by the sun and releasses s hydrogen
Describe the characteristics of visible light It's in a small spectrum and all the colors combined makes white and different wavelengths of visible light is seen as different colors
difference between different colors of light. they have different wavelengths
pigment is a materials selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light and do not absorb other wavelengths
what wavelengths (colors) of light are absorbed and which are reflected by a pigment that appears green, or one that appears black, or white A pigment that appears green is one that doesn't absorb green but absorbs the rest of the spectrum. If it's white it doesn't absorb the entire spectrum
Which wavelengths of visible light are absorbed and used for photosynthesis? chlorophyll a/b and carotonoids. It doesn't absorb green light
Which pigment molecule in the water-splitting photosystem is involved directly in the light reactions Chlorophyll absorbs the photons of light energy and the electrons in the pigment gain energy and get to an excited state
What happens when chlorophyll absorbs a photon of light It excites the electrons in the pigment getting it to an excited state
What role do electrons play in the chlorophyll When the electrons get excited they are harnessed and turn into ATP and NADH (chemical energy)
How does it replace these electrons in hte chlorophyll a water molecule is broken up and it loses electrons and is used in the chlorophyll. Oxygen is produced from the replacement
How does the electron transport system within the thylakoid membrane create ATP? (It involves H+ ions, and ATP synthase ETS is used between light reaction and calvin cycle. As electrons lose energy through ETS the hydrogen ions are released and they are pumped to the thylakoid membrane. Inhte membrane they go through atp synthase and synthesize atp
How does this compare to the electron transport system for cellular respiration It's close to the same but it doesn't produce as much atp and the atp is produced from the atp synthase in the thylokoid membrane instead of the mitochondria
What things are produced in the light reactions that are necessary to fuel the Calvin Cycle? ATp, and nadph
For the Calvin Cycle (CO2 Fixation): where does this process occur they are in the liquid stroma of the chloroplasts
What “input” is required in order for the Calvin cycle to occur Co2, Atp and NADPH
What happens to the carbon that enters the Calvin Cycle as CO2 It's broken down into a a G3P sugar that can be used to make a glucose or another form of high energy
Explain how destruction of large areas of forest contributes to global warming (the greenhouse effect). We put more carbon dioxide increasing heat and less tress mean less carbon sinks and less oxygen
What type of organisms first developed photosynthesis Cyanobacteria (prokaryotes
How did the development of photosynthesis significantly change the atmosphere on earth It added oxygen into the air and allowed for other organisms to grow and created atmosphere that protected the earth which made conditions more favorable
How and where is O2 gas produced by photosynthesis Light reactions
stomata or pores for the exchange of carbon dioxide (in) and oxygen (out) between plant cells and the air. Stomata can close at night or when water is in short supply
vascular tissue a system of tube-shaped cells that branch throughout the plant, for the transport of water and minerals from the roots up into the plant
cuticle waxy layer coating the leaves have to minimize evaporation of water.
Two types of vascular tissue exist in plants 1. Xylem transports water and minerals from roots UP to leaves and 2. phloem distributes sugars
Flowering plants (angiosperms) are characterized by having pollen, flowers, seeds, and fruits. Explain how each of these structures is an adaptation for reproducing in a terrestrial (land) environment. They are important for sexual reproduction because it can be carried in hte wind and is very easy to move. They don't need sperm to swim at all and fertilize an egg. They are very efficient Seeds are good too because htye are protected and have food so they are durable
How do fungi obtain energy and nutrients digests food outside its body by secreting powerful digestive enzymes to break down the food andabsorbing the simpler food compounds
What important functions do fungi perform for us, and for an ecosystem? They release nitrogen, carbon and other elements that recycle and are able to be used by us. This is the stock of inorganic nutrients needed for plants to grow
symbiosis is a close and long-term interaction between members of two different species
mycorrhizae are an example of a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship between fungi and plant roots
how does each type of organism involved in this symbiosis benefit from the interaction mycorrhiza Plants bemefit because the fungus helps absorb water and minerals. Fungi benefits by transfer of sugars and other organic materials
At what point in the cell cycle of mitosis do chromosomes replicate Interphase (No signs of cell division)
After replication, each chromosome is made up of two ___________________ held together at a point called the _________________ 1. sister chromatids 2. Centromeres
chromosome made of chromatin, fibers composed of roughly equal amounts of DNA and protein molecules and not visible in a cell until just before cell division occurs. They also hold genes that are the blueprints for all of the cell
chromatin is fibers composed of roughly equal amounts of DNA and protein molecules an
At what point in the cell cycle do chromosomes replicate interphase in the s phase
At which point in the cell cycle does chromatin condense and become visible as chromosomes Prophase
Prophase The nuclear envelope is disintegrated and chromatin condenses and single strands of chromosome. SPindle forms and attach to centromeres seperating chromatids. The centrosomes move to opposite poles
Metaphase Chromosomes line up in Middle of the cell (at the equator), pulled there by spindle fibers attached to centromeres.
Anaphase Sister chromatids are pulled Apart from each other at the centromere, and are pulled apart to opposite poles. Each sister chromatid is now considered to be a separate chromosome.
Telophase Chromosomes uncoil, become less visible Nuclear membranes reform around each new identical nucleus Spindle disappears
function of the spindle in mitosis and meiosis pull apart the chromatids
cytokinesis (division of the cytoplasm) occurs in Telophase. Animal cells do cleavage and sucks in so much it splits. The animal cells build a new cell wall and it builds up until it becomes a new cell. It called a cell plate
During which stage of mitosis does cytokinesis occur telophase
Describe the main difference between cytokinesis in plant cells and cytokinesis in animal cells. Animal cells doo cleavage furrow which snaps the cell into two. The animal cell creates a cell plate that becomes a cell walll that divides the two cells and they become two
Compare how the number of chromosomes in the “parent” cell compares with the number of chromosomes in the two “daughter” cells that are formed. They both have the same amount of chromosomes. There are 46 chromosomes and in the daughter cells the chromosomes are exactly the same
Describe the key characteristics of cancer cells, in terms of genetic changes and regulation of mitosis There are cell cycle control systems that regulate division. Cancer is a disease that don't respond to the cell control system. They will divide out of control and spread. They form tumors
metastasis The spread of cancer cells beyond their original site of origin
What is the difference between a benign tumor and a malignant one? A beignin tumor is abnormal cells remain in the same site. Malignant tumors or cancerous tumors spread across the body and interrupt normal body functions. They can travel through lymphatics or bloodstream
Sexual reproduction always involves two processes 1. Meiosis 2. Fertilization
a special type of cell division called _______ which reduces the number of chromosomes in the cell by half, meiosis
a process called __________ which results in formation of a new cell with two sets of chromosomes fertilization
Explain why sexual reproduction always requires both meiosis and fertilization Sexual reproduction produces offspring that contain a unique combination of genes from two parents
Meiosis in humans results in the formation of ________________. Haploid cells
Explain the difference between haploid and diploid cells Haploids are for sexual reproduction cells and have only one set of chromosomes. Diploids have two sets of chromosomes and are mostly for the bodies cells
Which cells in the human life cycle are haploid During egg and sperm and inbetween meiosis and fertilization
How many chromosomes does a diploid human body cell contain? 46
How many chromosomes does a haploid human body cell contain? 23
What is a karyotype A picture of a complete set of chromosomes
autosomes Twenty-two pairs of chromosomes . two members of each pair look similar to each other. (44) Sex chromosomes dont count
What determines whether a person is male or female Sex chromosomes. XX is girl XY is male
In what ways are homologous chromosomes similar to each other They are two members of a pair of chromosomes. Similar in the size, shape, and staining pattern. Homologous chromosomes carry genes for the same traits
Are the homologous chromosomes both from one parent No. one chromosome comes from the mother and the other from the father
What are gametes, and are they haploid or diploid haploid (egg and sperm)
What is a zygote, and is a zygote haploid or diploid A zygote is a fertilized egg and it's a diploid
What happens in Interphase before meiosis The homologous chromosomes are duplicate they form two sister chromatids and the sister chromatids are split
What does meiosis I accomplish Seperate the homologous chromosomes
What does meiosis II accomplish Seperat the sister chromatids
homologous chromosomes ever pair up in mitosis? In meiosis? Homologous chromosomes never even pair up with each other in mitosis but they do in meiosis
What is being pulled apart from each other in Anaphase I of meiosis There pulling apart the homolougous chromosomes but the sister chromatids remained attached
what things are being pulled apart from each other in Anaphase II of meiosis? The sister chromatids are being pulled apart from both of the haploid cells
Which Anaphase of meiosis is most similar to what happens in Anaphase of mitosis? Explain Probably Anaphase two becuase the sister chromatids are being pulled apart.
What happens during Crossing Over, exchanges genes between maternal and paternal chromosomes, creating new combinations of genes
what point in meiosis does crossing over occur? anaphase 1
What does “independent assortment” of chromosomes mean chromosomes during Metaphase I occurs: the pairs line up and head to opposite poles randomly
Explain how Independent Assortment, Crossing Over, and Random Fertilization each contribute to genetic variation in offspring There is sharing of genes and the genes chosen are randomly chosen so there could be a huge variation in the genes chosen. And a sperm can fertilizee with any random egg
Explain how nondisjunction during meiosis can result in chromosomal problems such as Down Syndrome non disjunction the members of a chromosome pair fail to separate at anaphase, producing gametes with an incorrect number of chromosomes
What happens when there is disjunction Abnormal amount oof chromosomes is triomy and babies could die form this and many will have strange karyotype and many syndromes could occur
What is the main risk factor (thing that increases risk) for Down Syndrome? The increasing age of the mother
What does a karyotype show? the 46 chromosomes which are then shown as pairs called autosomes and then called homologous chromosomes
Meiosis begins with cells that are _______ (haploid or diploid) and produces cells that are _____(haploid or diploid) . 1. Diploid 2. Haploid
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