Weather and Climate Geography Test

Olivia  Gniadek
Flashcards by Olivia Gniadek, updated more than 1 year ago
Olivia  Gniadek
Created by Olivia Gniadek about 5 years ago


Year 12 Geography Flashcards on Weather and Climate Geography Test, created by Olivia Gniadek on 28/03/2016.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Define Weather The state of the atmosphere at a particular place and time as regards heat, cloudiness, dryness, sunshine, wind, rain, etc.
Define Climate The weather conditions prevailing in an area in general or over a long period.
What are the 6 elements of weather, what units are they measured and how are the elements measured (instruments)
List and explain the 5 factors affecting temperature Ocean Currents Warm Currents = Warmer climate Cold currents = cool climate Length of Day (depending on the time of year) Latitude Incoming solar radiation (insolation) is concentrated near the equator Insolation near the poles has to pass through a greater amount of atmosphere and there is more chance of it being reflected back into outer space Albedo (the reflective properties of a surface) Closeness to sea Water moderates the temperature. Cooler summers and warmer winters
Why does Adelaide have a cooler climate to Darwin Because Adelaide is closer to the poles where there are cooler temperatures however Darwin is in the Tropics and is closer to the equator which gives Darwin warmer temperatures
Define Atmosphere
4 layers of the Atmosphere Troposphere Stratosphere Mesosphere Thermosphere
3 facts about the Troposphere Contains most of the atmosphere’s water vapour, cloud, dust, and pollution. Its temperatures decrease on average by 6.4 degrees celcius with every 1000m increase in altitude. This layer is unstable
3 facts about the Stratosphere Characterised by a steady increase in temperature caused by ozone (O3) Ozone absorbs incoming ultra-violet radiation from the sun. Protects the earth from meteorites which usually burn out before they enter the earth’s gravitational field.
3 facts about the Mesosphere There is no water vapour, cloud, dust or ozone to absorb incoming radiation Temperatures drop rapidly. It is the coldest layer of the atmosphere at minus 90 degrees Celsius, and strongest winds, nearly 3000km per hour.
3 facts about the Thermosphere In this layer temperatures rise rapidly, to as much as 1500 degrees Celsius. This is due to increased amounts of atomic oxygen which absorbs incoming ultra-violet radiation.
Gases in the atmosphere and their % composition
6 world climatic regions Mountains (Tundra) Mediterranean Tropical Arid Temperate Polar
6 world climatic regions facts Polar - very cold and dry all year Temperate - cold winters and mild summers Arid - dry, hot all year Tropical - hot and wet all year Mediterranean - mild winters, dry hot summers Mountains (Tundra) - very cold all year
Define Insolation The amount of solar radiation reaching a given area.
% of insolation that is absorbed by the earth and its atmosphere and is reflected into space Absorbed by the Earth = 46% Reflected by Earth's surface = 6%
% of absorbed insolation by land, oceans, clouds and atmosphere Absorbed by cloud = 4% Absorbed by water vapour = 19%
% of reflected insolation back into space by the atmosphere, clouds and earth's surface Reflected by atmosphere gases and dust = 8% Reflected by clouds = 17%
Define Albedo The proportion of the incident light or radiation that is reflected by a surface, typically that of a planet or moon
The albedo of fresh snow and an ideal black surface Asphalt 0.05–0.10 (new) 0.10–0.15 (weathered) Snow 0.80–0.90
Define heat budget Incoming heat being absorbed by the Earth, and outgoing heat escaping the Earth in the form of radiation
What would happen if the amount of heat being absorbed by the earth and the amount of heat escaping the earth was not balanced If they were not balanced, then Earth would be getting either progressively warmer or progressively cooler with each passing year.
Energy budget diagram
Define Urban heat island An urban heat island (UHI) is a city or metropolitan area that is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas due to human activities.
Heat island causes Concrete and asphalt tend to increase the amount of solar radiation absorbed. Cities tend to have fewer trees and thus the cooling effects of shade and evapotranspiration are reduced. The cooling effects of winds can also be reduced by buildings.
Effects of UHI on Weather, the environment and global warming UHI can alter local wind patterns, the development of clouds and fog, the humidity, and the rates of precipitation
How can the effects of UHI be minimised Painting structures white, or other light colours Installation of green roofs atop city buildings. Roof sprinkling is another evaporative cooling solution
Types of Precipitation Rain Hail Sleet Snow
The Water Cycle
Types of Rainfall Convectional Frontal Orographic
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