Unit 1 How do you do science?

Mariana r
Flashcards by Mariana r, updated more than 1 year ago
Mariana r
Created by Mariana r over 4 years ago
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What are Methods of Investigation Laboratory experiments (how do cells work?) Fieldwork (animal behavior) Surveys (number of organisms in the soil) Models (test design of new aircraft)
How do you solve a problem? 1)Problem 2)Research what is known 3)Formulate a hypothesis 4)Do an experiment 5)Interpret your results 6)Draw a conclusion 7)Communicate findings
How do you know your research question is good? 1)Verification - Quick Check “YES” or “NO” => NOT GOOD (too limited) 2)Opinion based – too subjective 3)Big Question - a trip to the library would answer the question => NOT GOOD FOR SPECIFIC INVESTIGATIONS 4)Research Question - Have Independent and Dependent Variables - “Do-able” yes
Hypothesis Tentative explanation for a set of observations: “If… then… because”
A good hypothesis: Can be tested and the test can be repeated Can be quantified Specifies the independent and dependent variables Does not judge moral values or opinions It is neither too specific nor too general It is a prediction of consequences It is considered valuable even if proven false Should be written before you begin your experiment
When doing experiments... Repetition is important: more trials → more accuracy Factors that could be changed: variable - dependent: what you measure - independent: what you change Factors that must stay the same: controlled variables Control group: used for comparison
Theories Well-tested explanation based on lots of evidence Details can change with more evidence
Writing your method should be a step-by-step recipe good procedures: allow people to replicate your experiment and get the same results every time are clear show quantities don’t assume people know what you want them to do!
Qualitative Data shows a description, quality is observed, not measured colour, smell, shape, taste
Quantitative shows numbers, quantities is measured length, height, volume, mass, age
Tables Contain: Descriptive Title Not good: “Height” Good: “Height (cm) reached by the tennis ball” Units cm ml s Columns/Rows labeled Trials Mass of sugar (g) Pressure (psi) Time (s)
Graphs Types of graphs: line, scatter, bar, pie, etc How to decide? Graphs usually show AVERAGES All graphs should contain the same basic info found in tables (title, units, labels, etc)
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