diseases of the respiratory system

allisten cooper
Flashcards by allisten cooper, updated more than 1 year ago
allisten cooper
Created by allisten cooper over 5 years ago
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3-5 Biology Flashcards on diseases of the respiratory system, created by allisten cooper on 28/04/2016.

Resource summary

Question Answer
identify 4 common diseases of the respiratory system 1. asthma 2. chronic bronchitis 3. emphysema 4. cancers
describe a term that can be used to identify all diseases of the respiratory system Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is an umbrella term used to describe progressive lung diseases including emphysema, chronic bronchitis, refractory (non-reversible) asthma, and some forms of bronchiectasis. This disease is characterized by increasing breathlessness.
What are the symptoms associated with all COPDS? Increased breathlessness Frequent coughing (with and without sputum) Wheezing Tightness in the chest
What are the risk factors/ common causes of COPD? 1. inhaling pollutants; that includes smoking (cigarettes, pipes, cigars, etc.), and second-hand smoke. Fumes, chemicals and dust found in many work environments 2. Genetics can also play a role-even if the person has never smoked or has ever been exposed to strong lung irritants in the workplace.
Most of the individuals who have COPD (about 90% of them) have smoked. IDENTIFY 4 chemicals found in cigarette smoke that is responsible for this fact. 1. tar 2. carbon monoxide 3. carcinogens (cancer causing chemicals) 4. nicotine
1. (a) Explain how the first chemical is related to a named COPD (b) DIAGNOSE the disease represented by the picture in the following flashcard explaining what has occured 1. tar coats the air passages and alveoli causing (a) build up of mucus, multiple infections and (b) the breakdown of the alveoli surface resulting in the following respective effects i. development of bronchial cough/chronic bronchitis ii. shortness of breathe due to emphysema
b. The walls of the alveoli have been destroyed by chemicals e.g.tar and by the continuous pressure of a bronchial cough. This results in a reduction of surface area reducing the capacity to absorb oxygen that is a condition called emphysema
2. Explain how the second chemical from flashcard (5) is related to a named COPD 2. carbon monoxide's in smoke has a greater affinity for haemoglobin of red blood cells over that of oxygen. symptoms of smoke inhalation, shortness of breathe is experienced by smokers. and victims of smoke inhalation
3. Explain how the third chemical from flashcard (5) is related to a named COPD carcinogens are chemicals that damage cell nuclear DNA resulting in a non functional, invasive, rapidly replicating cell. this cancer devours normal functioning tissues and organs eventually causing death.
fully explain what is nicotine (C10H14N2) and its effects as a COPD A poisonous volatile alkaloid derived from tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) and responsible for many of the effects of tobacco; it first stimulates (small doses), then depresses (large doses). It is an additive TO tobacco products, electronic cigarettes. IT has the following effects elevates blood pressure a nerve stimulant in small doses a nerve depressant in large doses causes blood to clot--- leads to strokes/heart attacks increases adrenaline followed by heart rate increases blood glucose and inhibits insulin -- leading to type 2 diabetes
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