Cardiac trauma

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Flashcards by ecmarchese, updated more than 1 year ago
ecmarchese
Created by ecmarchese about 7 years ago
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Echo Flashcards on Cardiac trauma, created by ecmarchese on 02/06/2014.

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Question Answer
What are 3 types of trauma? Non-penetrating/blunt, penetrating, latrogenic
What are 2 life threatening consequences of trauma? Excessive hemorrhage or blood loss, cardiac tamponade.
Accounts for 25% of all traumatic deaths annually in the US? Non-penetrating/blunt chest trauma
Direct sternal compression on the heart. Non-penetrating/ blunt chest trauma
What non-penetrating/ blunt chest trauma cause? Increase in intrathoracic pressures from trauma to the chest or abdomen. (Swelling)
RWMA Regional wall motion abnormalities
What are the echo findings for blunt trauma? Increased wall thickness at end diastole due to swelling RWMA, increased echogenicity, chamber enlargement, mural thrombus, pericardial effusion
This can cause complications Similar to MI, RV is the most susceptible, ventricular aneurysm/ pseudo and arrhythmia Cardiac contusion (bruised myocardium)
What are the complications of blunt trauma? Pericardial effusion, tamponade, constrictive pericarditis, cardiac contusion
What is the most common complication of blunt trauma? Pericardial effusion
What is a long term complication of blunt trauma? Constrictive pericarditis
These rarely occur (9%), and the left side valves most often affected due to increased pressures. Valvular injuries (blunt trauma)
This valve is vulnerable in early diastole and may cause the valve to rupture. Aortic valve
What would you find valve injuries to the aortic valve? AI, diastolic aortic flutter, posterior motion of the affected cusp, and wide excursion of the valve.
This valve is vulnerable in diastole causing injury to the chordae or papillary muscle Mitral valve
What would you find in trauma to the mitral valve? Acute MR, flail leaflets, obstruction of MV orifice
This valve injury is associated with rupture of the RV free wall. Tricuspid valve
What would you find with a tricuspid valve injury? TR, flail leaflet, ruptured chordae or papillary muscle
What's the only solution for great vessel injury? Emergency surgical repair
With a great vessel injury what will you see? X-ray shows widening of mediastinum due to broken sternum
These are hemodynamically unstable, and most often present with lacerated aorta, lacerated PA Great vessel injury blunt trauma
Are great vessel injury fatal? Yes, usually within one hour
Trauma to the heart due to knives, bullets, projectiles Penetrating injury
What is most effected with penetrating injury? RV is most often affected and often pts die due to tamponade
List in order what structures are affected with penetrating injury? RV, LV, RA, LA
What are some echo findings for penetrating trauma? Postoperative echo for presence of residual injury, PE, abnormal wall motion, chamber enlargement, foreign fragments
This is a hole in the artery and vein that due to pressure force together, and have to be surgically separated. AV fistula
When doing an echo what do we use Doppler when evaluating a penetrating trauma? Shunts, valvular lesions, AV fistula
Injury due to diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Latrogenic injury
During heart catheterization, what type of injuries can you acquire? Perforated coronary artery, aortic dissection, perforations of chambers, injury to valves, fractured catheter pieces, ruptured sinus of Valsalva
What are 4 different types of latrogenic injuries? Heart catheter, balloon valvuloplasty, pericardiocentesis, cardiac pacemakers
This procedure causes man made arterial septal defects, and the rupture of chordae tendinae? Balloon valvuloplasty
This procedure can result in a Punctured myocardium. Pericardiocentesis
This procedure can cause perforation of atriums/ ventricles/ septums, pericardial effusion/ tamponade. Cardiac pacemakers
During this procedure there is an increased risk of RV perforation. Myocardial biopsy
What is the most common problem after cardiac surgery? PE/ tamponade
This procedure can cause PE, adhesions, extra cardinal blood clots, compression of RV, pseudo aneurysms Cardiac surgery
This procedure can cause a laceration of the heart, rupture of the heart, RV papillary muscle rupture or dysfunction, and a laceration or rupture of the great vessels CPR
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