Testing for ions

Description

This mindmap shows the ions in a solution and the corresponding process to test for those ions in order to ensure that they are definitely present in the solution.
Joshua Rees
Mind Map by Joshua Rees, updated more than 1 year ago
Joshua Rees
Created by Joshua Rees almost 8 years ago
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Resource summary

Testing for ions
  1. Ammonium ions can be tested for by adding a few drops of dilute sodium hydroxide solution and heating.
    1. If ammonium ions are present, ammonia gas will be a product of the reaction and will turn red litmus paper blue.
    2. Carbonate ions can be tested for by adding some dilute hydrochloric acid.
      1. If carbonate ions are present, carbon dioxide gas will be a product of the reaction and will turn limewater cloudy.
      2. Sulphate ions can be tested by firstly adding some dilute hydrochloric acid followed by some barium chloride solution.
        1. If sulphate ions are present, barium sulphate will be a product of the reaction and a white precipitate will form.
        2. Halide ions
          1. Halide ions can be tested for by adding some dilute nitric acid followed by some silver nitrate solution
            1. Different halides form different coloured precipitates as different products are formed.
              1. Chlorine ions
                1. Silver chloride
                  1. White precipitate
                2. Bromide ions
                  1. Silver bromide
                    1. Cream precipitate
                  2. Iodide ions
                    1. Silver iodide
                      1. Yellow precipitate
              2. Nitrate ions
                1. Nitrate ions can be tested for by adding some sodium hydroxide solution followed by some aluminium powder or foil and then heating strongly.
                  1. If nitrate ions are present, ammonia gas will be a product of the reaction and will turn red litmus paper blue because it is a strong alkali.
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