MCAT B.S. Part 3

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ch. 6 and 7 from kaplan: digestion and respiration

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Question Answer
Check 7.1 Goals of the Digestive system breakdown of food into organic molecules and absorption of the products of digestion into body
Check 7.1 Mechanical vs. chemical digestion mechanical: physical breakdown of large food particles into smaller food particles Chemical: enzymatic cleavage of chemical bonds ie breaking peptide bond of proteins
Check 7.3 Purpose of Epithelium first border/primary protection
Check 7.3 roles of saliva (2) 1. lubricant: aids mechanical digestion by moistening and lubricating the food 2. source of enzymes: has salivary amylase(ptyalin) and lipase. ptyalin hydrolyzes starch into smaller sugars (maltose&dextrin) and lipase catalyzes the hydrolysis of lipids.
Check 7.4 Id the function of the pharynx in swallowing leads from mouth and nose to the esophagus
Check 7.4 Role of epiglottis prevents food from getting into the respiratory tract by folding down and covering the trachea during swallowing
Check 7.5 role of peristalsis in movement of food down esophagus after initiation of a swallow, and is the continuation of the muscular contraction and is involuntary, pushes food down the tube and used to throw up
Check 7.6 role of stomach in the storage and churning of food can store 2 liters, muscular, uses acid and enzymes to digest food. first major site of digestion
check 7.6 6 secretions of stomach 1. H+: kills microbes, denatures proteins, converts pepsinogen into pepsin 2. pepsinogen- digests proteins 3. mucus- protects mucose 4. bicarbonate- protects mucosa 5. water- dissolves and dilutes ingested material 6. intrinsic factor- needed for normal absorption of vitamin B12
Check 7.6 pyloric glands secrete gastrin-hormone that induces secretion HCl
check 7.6 assess how stomach is protected from acid and digestive enzymes have mucous cells which make the mucus that protects the muscular wall from the harshly acidic (pH 2) and proteolytic environment of the stomach
check 7.7 structure and function of villi covers the surface of the inner wall of the small intestine; maximizes surface area for absorption; each villi is covered in microvilli
Check 7.7 explain how the small intestine neutralizes acid from the stomach 1. uses pancreatic juices with pH 8.5 (bicarbonate soln w/enzymes) neutralizes chyme (from stomach); digest carbs, fats, and proteins 2. bile- made up of bile salts, pigments and cholesterol; released by gall bladder into duodenum in response to CCK (pH 7.5-8.8)
Check 7.7 enzymes active in small intestine and where they are made (1-6) 1. pancreatic amylase- starch to maltose- from pancreas 2. maltase-maltose to glucose-intestinal glands 3. sucrase- sucrose to glucose/fructose- from intestinal glands 4. lactase- lactose to glucose/galactose- intestinal glands 5. trypsin- breaks peptide bonds, converts to chymotrypsin, from pancreas 6. chymotrypsin- breaks peptide bonds- from pancrease
Check 7.7 enzymes active in small intestine and where they are made (7-12) 7. carboxypeptidase- hydrolyzes terminal peptide bond @carboxyl end-from pancreas 8. aminopeptidase- hydrolyzes terminal peptide bond at amino end- from intestinal glands 9. dipeptidases- hydrolyzes pairs of amino acids 10. enterokinase-converts to trypsin- from intestinal glands 11. bile-emulsifies fat- from liver 12. lipase- hydrolyzes lipids- from pancreas
check 7.7 role of bile in digestion of fats allow fat to be emulsified, it allow fats to mix in by creating micelles and these expose more surface of the fats to lipase
check 7.7 how accessory organs work with small intestine for chemical digestion gall bladder and pancreas provide enzymes and bile which allow for neutralization of chyme and breakdown into small molecules
check 7.8 importance of large intestine in absorption of water colon part absorbs water and salts in the undigested material from the small intestines; too little or much water absorption causes diarrhea or constipation respectively
check 7.8 recognize the need for the bacterial flora in intestine assist with digestion and absorption function
Ch. 7 Post-test 1. Which of the following associations between the type of gastric cell or gland and its secretions is correct? b. chief cells- pepsinogen
Ch. 7 Post-test 3. In an experiment, enterokinase secretion was blocked. as a direct result, levels of all of the following enzymes were affected... trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase
Ch. 7 Post-Test 4. Correct pairing of digestive hormone with function following are correct: a. trypsin-hydrolyzes specific peptide bonds b. lactase- hydrolyzes lactose to glucose and galactose c. pancreatic amylase- hydrolyzes starch to maltose d. lipase- hydrolyzes lipids
Ch. 7 Post-test 5. Where are proteins digested? stomach and small intestine
Ch. 7 Post-test 6. Correct pairs of digestive enzyme with secretion. Following are correct: sucrase-intestinal glands carboxypeptidase- pancrease trypsin- pancreas lactase- intestinal glands
Ch. 7 Post-test 9. 2 graphs with varying pH, match with what enzymes. pepsin- low pH at curve peak chymotrypsin- higher pH at curve peak
Ch. 7 Post-test 12. Which of the following choices correctly pairs the nutrient with absorption site? chylomicrons-lacteals
Ch. 7 Post-test 15. Pair digestive enzyme with site of secretion part 2. pancreatic amylase- pancreas aminopeptidase- intestinal glands enterokinase- intestinal glands maltase- intestinal glands
Ch. 7 Post-test 16. Pair digestive enzyme with function sucrase- hydrolyzes sucrose to glucose and fructose carboxypeptidase- hydrolyzes the terminal peptide bond at the carboxyl end trypsin- hydrolzyes peptide bonds, converts chymotrypsinogen to chymotrypsin lactase- hydrolyzes lactose to glucose and galatose
Check 8.1 structure of respiratory system nasal cavity-pharynx-larynx-trachea-bronchi in lungs-end is alveoli (gas exchange
check 8.1 function of lungs gas exchange
check 8.1 function of external nares where air enters respiratory tract
check 8.1 function of nasal cavity filters air through mucus membranes and nasal hair
check 8.1 function of pharynx tunnel tween mouth and esophagus for both food and air
check 8.1 function of larynx pathway for air
check 8.1 function of epiglottis covers larynx during swallowing to prevent food from going down
check 8.1 function of alveoli where gas exchange occurs in lungs
Check 8.1 function of surfactant coating on alveolus, detergent that lowers surface tension and prevents the alveolus from collapsing on itself
check 8.1 remove particulate matter from inhaled air filtered through mucous membranes and nasal hairs in nasal cavity; cilia in nasal pathway traps particulate matter so it doesn't enter lungs
check 8.1 thermoregulation of outside air coming into the lungs air has time to warm up going through many structures before lungs, and in lungs goes through bronchioles
check 8.2 breathing mechanism enabled by diaphragm and rib cage muscles 1. inhalation- diaphragm and external intercostal muscles expand the thoracic cavity, diaphragm flattens and chest wall moves out 2. exhalation-diaphragm and external intercostals relax and chest cavity decreases
Check 8.2 differential pressure and breathing there is a decrease in intrapleural pressure during inhalation, gas in lungs in now higher than pressure in intrapleural space, so lungs expand into intrapleural space and air is sucked in from high pressuer place: called negative-pressure breathing
check 8.2 potential for lung disease and how to protect against it if alveolar walls are destroyed, then exhalation is extremely difficult, don't smoke
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