natasha hainsworth
Mind Map by natasha hainsworth, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
Created by matt_daniells almost 5 years ago
Copied by n.marment almost 5 years ago
natasha hainsworth
Copied by natasha hainsworth almost 5 years ago


Mind Map on GCSE PE, created by natasha hainsworth on 04/24/2015.

Resource summary

1 Warmup and cooldown
1.1 CV Warmup
1.1.1 Stretching Specific skills practice
1.2 Prevents injury
1.2.1 Practice skills before the game Prepare psychologically
1.3 Cool down flushes out lactic acid and helps to prevent stiffness and soreness in the muscles
2 Tests
2.1 HR tests
2.1.1 Cooper's run - CV fitness and Muscular endurance Hand grip strength test - Muscular strength Sit and reach test - Flexibility Harvard step test - CV fitness and Muscular Endurance
2.2 SR tests
2.2.1 Illinois agility run (agility) Standing stork test (balance) Sergeant jump test (leg power) Standing board jump (power) Ruler drop test (reaction time) 30-metre sprint (speed) Three ball juggle (coordination)
3 Principles of training
3.1 Individual needs
3.1.1 Progressive Overload
3.2 Specificity
3.2.1 Rest and recovery FITT
4 Benefits of taking part in physical activity
4.1 Physical - Physical challenge, Increase performance, Contribute to good physical health, increase fitness, improve heath related factors
4.2 Social - Make new friends, Develop teamwork skills, Work with others
4.3 Relieve or prevent stress, Mental challenge (can I do it?), Increase self esteem and confidence, make individual feel good
5 skill related components
5.1 co-ordination-the ability to use two or more body parts at once
5.2 agility-ability to change direction of movement quickly
5.3 reaction time-the time taken to react to the stimulus
5.4 balance-the ability to retain the centre of mass (gravity) of the body
5.5 speed- the time taken to cover a distance
5.6 power-the ability to undertake strength performances quickly
6 Opportunities for getting involved
6.1 Government initiatives, i.e. two hours of PE per week
6.1.1 Active Kids Program
6.2 PE School Sport and Club Links (PESSCL
6.2.1 The Youth Sport trust (sports leaders)
6.3 Top link trust- keep people aged 14-16 involved in sport
7 Nutrients
7.1 Carbohydrates - provide energy
7.2 Fats - Provide energy with glycogen and help muscles work
7.3 Proteins - Help build muscle and repair damaged tissue
7.4 Minerals - Essential for a healthy body
7.5 Vitamins - Essential for healthy bones, vision, skin etc.
7.6 Adds bulk to food and aids digestive system
8 Factors affecting optimum weight
8.1 Height
8.1.1 Gender Bone Structure Muscle girth
9 Maximum heart rate = 220 - Age
9.1 Target heart rate or target zone: the range within which an individual needs to work aerobic training to take place (60-80% of maximum heart rate)
10 Drugs
10.1 Anabolic steroids (allow you to train harder and recover quicker, risk of heart attack and strokes, infertility in women
10.1.1 Beta blockers (lower heart rate-steadiness), risk of nausea, tiredness and depression Diuretics (increase urine-mask other drugs), risk of dehydration, and kidney problems long-term
10.2 Narcotic analgesics (reduce pain), loss of concentration, sometimes hallucinations
10.2.1 Stimulants (increase physcial alertness), High blood pressure, addiction, insomnia Peptide hormones(produce other hormones), Increased risk of heart attack
10.3 Alcohol, affects coordination, damages liver, kidneys etc, slows reaction
10.3.1 Tobacco, Short of breath, increases risk of heart disease
11 Risk prevention
11.1 Warming up/cooling down
11.1.1 Checking equipment and facilities Protective equipment and clothing Balanced Competition Playing to the rules of competition Physical readiness
12 Cardiovascular system
12.1 Immediate effects:increased heart rate, sweating,increased body temperature,increased blood presssure
12.2 long term effects: increased cardiac output, lower resting heart rate,increased number of capillaries, heart muscles increase in size, quicker recovery, increased stroke volume
12.3 consists of heart, blood vessels and the blood
12.4 functions: supply oxygen and nutrients and to remove carbon dioxide
12.5 lifestyle effects: high cholesterol from fats
13 Respiratory system
13.1 tidal volume is the amount of air inspired and expired with each normal breath at rest or during exercise
13.2 vital capacity-is the greatest amount of air that can be made to pass into and out of the lungs .
13.3 immediate effects: breatging rate increase, oxygen debt
13.4 long term effects:increased efficency, increased vital capacity, increase amount of alveoli, carbon dioxide removed more efficiently
13.5 smoking causes the alveoli to become less stretchy and less eficient this is why smokers find it hard to breathe
14 Muscular system
14.1 immediate effects:lactic acid build up, cramp,increaase demand for oxygen
14.2 how the muscles work?
14.2.1 isontonic contraction-muscle contraction which results in movement
14.2.2 isometric contraction-muscle contraction which results in increased tension however the length does not alter
14.3 long term effects: increased muscle size (hypertrophy), increased muscular strength, better posture, increased bone strength, increased power
14.4 potential injuries: soft tissue
15 Skeletal system
15.1 functions: 1. support 2. movement 3.protection
15.2 joints: hinge joint, ball and socket joint and pivot joint
15.2.1 movement: flexion, extention, adduction, abduction and rotation
15.3 effects of exercise: increase bone density, increased ligament and tendon strength, increased flexibility
15.4 impotance of weight bearing exercises: to reduce the risk of getting osteoporosis
15.5 injuries: broken bone, fracture, dislocation and sprain
16 Reasons for taking part
16.1 physical challenge
16.1.1 taking part in the London Marathon
16.2 asthetic appreciation
16.2.1 the beauty of the movement and how well its performed e.g gymnastics
16.3 co-operation
16.3.1 improving teamwork, e.g netball or rugby
16.4 the frienships and social mixing
16.4.1 develop motivation to participate
16.5 competition
16.5.1 relieve stress by taking mind off other things like exams
17 influences on taking part
17.1 people
17.1.1 family and peers
17.2 image
17.2.1 having the right equipment which is fashionable eg. nike trainers
17.3 cultural factors
17.3.1 disabilities may cause people to not be able to partiucipate in sports however opportunities are increasing another cultural factor is age and gender
17.4 resources
17.4.1 availability of facilities and resources or the location of facilities
17.5 health and wellbeing
17.5.1 illness may cause people not to be able to participate
17.6 socio-economic
17.6.1 cost can effect people choices as if they cannot afford it their socio-economic status has influenced their involvement
18 health related components
18.1 cardiovascular fitness-the ability to exercise the entire body for a long period of time
18.2 muscular endurance-the ability to use the voluntary muscles without getting tired
18.3 muscular strength- the amount of force able to exert against a resistance
18.4 body composition- the percentage of body weight thats body fat, bone and muscle
18.5 flexibility-the range of movement possible at a joint
19 weight related conditons
19.1 obese-a term used to descirbe people who are very overdat
19.2 overfat- having body fat in excess of normal
19.3 anorexic-a loss of appetite which causes weight loss
19.4 overweight- having weight in excess of normal but not harmful
19.5 underweight-is weighing less than normal
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All Edexcel GCSE PE key terms
Millie Berrett
PE - Unit 5