CHAPTER 11: PLANT STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

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grade 10 BIOLOGY (CHAPTER 11 - PLANT STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION) Flashcards on CHAPTER 11: PLANT STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION, created by albetix on 03/06/2014.

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Question Answer
What is the function of the lateral bud? To grow and form branches
What is the function of the terminal bud? To grow the bud at the tip of the root and may grow flowers
What is the function of the node? To develop leaves and buds
What is the main function of the leaves? The leaf makes organic molecules by photosynthesis and passes them to the stem
What are the four functions of the stem? Carrries these organic molecules to all parts of a plant Carries water and dissolved salts from roots to the leaves and flowers Supports and spaces out the leaves so they recieve sunlight and CO^2 Helps in pollination Helps seed dispersion
What are the three funtions of a root? It anchors the plant it absorbs water it absorbs mineral salts
what is the function of a leaf stalk? attaches the leaf to the stem
what is the cuticle? waxy water proof substance that cells of the upper epidermis secrete
what are the three functions of the epidermis? the epidermis maintains the shape of the leaf the epidermis reduces evaporation the epidermis prevents the entry of baceria and fungi
what is the distribution of stomata in monocot leaves? stomata are equally spread around in monocot leaves
what is the distributiion of stomata in dicot leaves? stomata are mainly concentrated in the lower epidermis in dicot leaves
what are the two functions of the stomata? the stomata is a site of gas exchage the stomata regulates water loss
How does carbondioxide in the air get into the mesophyll cells of a leaf¿ photosynthesis uses up co2 so the stomata opens and diffuses the oxygen created out
what are the three functions of the mesophyll cells? mesophyll cells synthesize carbon dioxide by photosynthesis mesophyll cells allow gas circulation mesophyll cells give the leaf strength
what materials does xylem transport? xylem transports water and mineral salts
what material does phloem transport? phloem transports sucrose
what are the four functions of the cortex cells? the cortex cells support the stem the cortex cells conatin starch grains the cortex cells contain chloroplasts and make food by photosynthesis the cortex cells store water
what is the structure of a xylem vessel? it has no organelles, it is elongated and hollow and perforated with pits
what is the structure of a phloem sieve tube? the sieve tube is cylindrical, has a cytoplasm but no nucleus
what is the structure of a phloem companion cell? it contains the organelles that the sieve tube lacks
what is the main function of a sieve tube? the sieve tube is adapted to carry out the transport of organic substances such as sucrose
what is the function of veins? veins deliver water and mineral salts to leaf cells and carry away organic molecules
what is the function of the lamina/leaf blade? the leaf blade contains photosynthesizing cells
what are the stoma surrounded by? guard cells
what is the mechanism for stomatal opening and closure? during the day the potassium ions are actively transported into the guard cells from the surrounding epidermal cells. the build up of potassium ions lowers the water potential of guard cells. this draws water into them by osmosis. the guard cells become turgid and the stomata opens. during the night when active transport is not taking place potassium ions diffuse out of the guard cells into the surrounding cells. water then leaves by osmosis, the guard cells become flaccid and the stomata close. the energy required to pump the potassium ions into the guard cells is likely to be supplied by the chloroplasts.
what are the two tisses found in veins? xylem and phloem
what is a functional difference between xylem and phloem¿ xylem vessels carry water and phloem vessels carry organic substances
in which direction does the phloem go? phloem goes from the leaves, downwards
in which direction does xylem go? xylem travels from the roots upwards
what are two structural differences between xylem and phloem? xylem has no cytoplasm while phloem has a cytoplasm and xylem cell walls are thickened with lignin and phloem cell wall have a perforated end wall
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