COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY AS AQA

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Flashcards on COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY AS AQA, created by korkor_kanor on 03/11/2014.

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DURATION: LTM IS UNLIMITED STM IS FEW SECONDS (without rehearsal) Shepard - 50% of photos recognised by participants Bahrick et al - Recall was 70% accurate after 48 years Peterson & Peterson - 90% of participants remembered consonant syllables after 3 seconds. 2% of participants remembered consonant syllables after 18 seconds
EVALUATION : MARSH ET AL - Duration of STM is only 2 seconds when there is NO EXPECTATION OF RECALL like in P&P. NAIRNE ET AL - 96 seconds for recalling SAME items across trials i.e. NO DISPLACEMENT. This means there is NO INTERFERENCE between items, which would in turn DECREASE RECALL. STM is NOT AS CLEAR-CUT as first thought. EVALUATION: 1. Only studying ONE KIND of memory i.e. SEMANTIC - memory for syllables and words has LOW MUNDANE REALISM & ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY - as memories in real life concern things like appearances or what we did last night. On the other hand, sometimes we must remember shopping lists or orders or even phone numbers. 2. Information remains in STM UNLESS OTHER MATERIAL OVERWRITES IT. Not testing duration as the nonsense syllable could have been DISPLACED when they were counting backwards, thus wiping memory of the syllables out!
STM - MEMORY FOR IMMEDIATE EVENTS THAT HAVE LIMITED DURATION & DISAPPEAR UNLESS REHEARSED. HAVE LIMITED CAPACITY ALSO. Used in working memory to comprehend language, solve problems etc. Related to LTM through verbal rehearsal. LTM - MEMORY FOR EVENTS THAT HAVE HAPPENED IN THE PAST i.e. FROM 2 MINUTES TO 100 YEARS. Has potentially unlimited duration & capacity.
DURATION - A MEASURE OF HOW LONG A MEMORY LASTS BEFORE IT IS NO LONGER AVAILABLE.
CAPACITY: STM IS LESS THAN 7 CHUNKS LTM IS UNLIMITED CAPACITY Miller - 7+/-2 chunks. Info is contained in chunks to remember more info. 5 words are remembered just as easily as 5 letters as they are CHUNKED for more space. Simon - Shorter memory span for larger chunks such as 8-word phrases as opposed to small chunks of 1-syllable words. Cowan - Study review - 4 chunks can be remembered rather than 7 Jacobs - Suggests only 7 letters are remembered because the alphabet is 26 letters. 9 digits more easily chunked because digits can be chunked into long meaningful numbers, whereas random letters may not form real words.
CAPACITY EVALUATION Cowan - Reviewed a variety of studies on the STM capacity & suggested STM is likely to be limited to 4 chunks. Vogal et al - Research shows STM capacity for visual info (rather than verbal stimuli) is 4 items. Suggests that STM may not be as extensive as first thought. REAL-WORLD APPLICATIONS Postcode system i.e. when initial letters of a postcode were MEANINGFUL, it was easier to remember. Made with BENEFIT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Recall of digit span INCREASES WITH AGE. 8 year olds remember 6 digits. 19 year olds remember 8 digits. This may be due to a GROWTH IN BRAIN CAPACITY. Or a better strategy for IMPROVING DIGIT SPAN may be developed as we get older.
ENCODING Acoustic coding : Coding info by the way it SOUNDS. Semantic coding : Coding info by its meaning. Baddeley - Participants remembered ACOUSTIC/VISUAL DISSIMILAR WORDS in STM. Participants remembered SEMANTIC DISSIMILAR WORDS in LTM. EVALUATION Brandimonte et al - STM relies on ACOUSTIC ENCODING. Also uses VISUAL ENCODING as when forced to do a VISUAL RECALL TASK without verbal rehearsal i.e. during the retention interval the participant says 'la la' to avoid translating visual images into verbal codes. Wickens et al - Showed evidence of semantic coding. Frost - LTM related to semantic AND visual categories. Nelson and Rothbart - LTM memory is NOT EXCLUSIVELY SEMANTIC. Showed evidence of acoustic encoding.
MULTI-STORE MEMORY MODEL (Atkinson & Shiffrin 1968) SENSORY MODEL - Data is transferred through eyes, nose, ears, fingers, tongues etc. to CORRESPONDING AREAS OF BRAIN. When ATTENTION IS PAID TO the SENSORY STORE, sensory data is transferred to STM. EVIDENCE Sperling - Shows info DECAYS RAPIDLY and SUPPORTS LIMITED DURATION of sensory store. 12 items (digits and letters) recalled showed poorer results - 42% recall. When one row was recalled after a tone, 75% recall shown. STM - Info held in STM DECAYS if it isn't rehearsed. (ACOUSTIC CODING) New info DISPLACES original info BECAUSE OF STM LIMITED CAPACITY. LTM - The more a piece of info is rehearsed, THE MORE LASTING the memory becomes. (SEMANTIC CODING) This is MAINTENANCE REHEASAL and how the STM INFO TRANSFERS to become LTM INFO. EVIDENCE PET scans show DIFFERENT AREAS OF THE BRAIN ARE ACTIVE during PARTICULAR TASKS. When STM is concerned, PREFRONTAL CORTEX ACTIVATED. When LTM is concerned, HIPPOCAMPUS ACTIVATED.
STRENGTHS STRONG EVIDENCE SUPPORTS DURATION, ENCODING & CAPACITY. Serial position effect evidence List of 20 words shown one at a time: Shows DISTINCTION BETWEEN STM AND LTM PRIMACY EFFECT - FIRST WORDS on a list are BEST REHEARSED & TRANSFERRED TO LTM RECENCY EFFECT - Recollection of words in the STM DETAILS OF STRUCTURE AND PROCESS I.E. MAINTENANCE REHEARSAL & RETRIEVAL CASE STUDIES: HM Hippocampus may be GATEWAY for NEW MEMORIES to go through before ENTERING PERMANENT STORAGE. HM endured BRAIN DAMAGE & had his HIPPOCAPMUS REMOVED. After the removal, his personality & intellect stayed intact, but he COULDN'T FORM NEW LONG TERM MEMORIES like before his surgery. IDEA THAT LTM IS UNITARY.
PET scans and fMRI take images of the ACTIVE brain and enable us to see WHICH REGION is active during A PARTICULAR TASK PREFRONTAL CORTEX ACTIVE during STM task. HIPPOCAMPUS ACTIVE during LTM task.
HM CASE STUDY: HIPPOCAMPUS REMOVED TO REDUCE SEVERE EPLIEPSY. PERSONALITY AND INTELLECT INTACT. REMEMBERED THINGS FROM BEFORE SURGERY. Could not form NEW LT memories. Suggests hippocampus is a MEMORY GATEWAY through which new memories pass through to ENTER PERMANENT STORAGE.
MSM STRENGTHS: 1. EVIDENCE FOR 3 QUALITATIVELY DIFFERENT STORES. 2. PROVIDES ACCOUNT OF MEMORY IN STRUCTURE AND PROCESS. I.e. Structure = SENSORY STORE, STM AND LTM. Process = ATTENTION & VERBAL REHEARSAL. 3. CLEAR PREDICTIONS ON MEMORY. EASY TO CONDUCT TESTS TO STUDY IT. 4. GUIDES REHABILITATION OF HIPPOCAMPAL DAMAGE DUE TO HM. LIMITATIONS 1. OVERSIMPLIFIES MEMORY STRUCTURE & PROCESS. 2. KF CASE STUDY SHOWED STM AND LTM AREN'T UNITARY STORES. KF struggled with VERBAL INFO IN STM but had a normal ability to process VISUAL INFO. Suggests there's more than one component in STM. 3. LTM NOT UNITARY AS MSM SUGGESTS AS AMNESIA SUFFERERS STRUGGLED WITH SEMANTIC & EPISODIC MEMORY. HOWEVER, procedural memory and PRS were intact. Suggests there's semantic, episodic, procedural long-term & PRS memories ETC. 4. NOT ALL INFO IS REHEARSED. MOST MEMORABLE MEMORIES HAVE BEEN ELABORATIVELY REHEARSED involving SEMANTIC/DEEPER ANALYSIS AND PROCESSING like shallow, phonemic or semantic. Deeper processing leads to enhanced recall. (Craik and Lockhart) 5. STM ACTUALLY RELIES ON LTM. Recollection of pseudo-words & words showed large differences in BRAIN ACTIVITY of the 2 conditions. Real words showed more activity - more involvement of the brain.
WORKING MEMORY MODEL: STM IS A PLACE WHERE INFO IS HELD UNTIL PUT TO USE UNLIKE THE HOLDING CONCEPT OF MSM TO BE MOVED TO LTM. VALIDITY ISSUE: :( PARTICIPANT REACTIVITY as participants are studying Psychology so guess true aims of study. Mostly 18 - 21 so not representative all ages. College students so highly intelligent, results therefore not applicable to all. Lab experiment - Demand characteristics and experimenter bias. :) Lab experiment so DV is influenced solely by IV & not extraneous variables Use of word lists not applicable to every type of memory
WORKING MEMORY MODEL Info held until put to USE - used when working out complex tasks e.g. maths problem where you need to STORE INFO AS YOU GO ALONG. E.g. 12 + 21 + 52, first you add 12 + 21 and keep the answer of 32 in working memory before adding 52. OR holding individual words in WM while determining sentence's meaning. 4 STORES: CENTRAL EXECUTIVE : Monitors & co-ordinates how resources i.e. slave systems, are allocated to different tasks. Function is to direct attention therefore it can't attend to too many things at once & has LIMITED CAPACITY
3 SLAVE SYSTEMS PHONOLOGICAL LOOP : Deals with & preserves auditory info & order of info. Divided into PHONOLOGICAL STORE (inner ear) to hold the words you hear - & - ARTICULATORY PROCESS (inner voice) words that are seen/heard repeatedly LOOPED i.e. MAINTENANCE REHEARSAL. VISUO-SPATIAL SKETCHPAD : Used to plan on spatial tasks e.g. counting windows in a house. TEMPORARY STORAGE. Visual information of what things look like is processed. Spatial information is the relationship between things. Divided into visual cache (store & inner scribe. EPISODIC BUFFER: EXTRA, GENERAL STORE. Holds visual & acoustic info. INTERGRATES info from CE, PL and VSS & from LTM. Limited capacity & temporary storage. Explains why amnesia suffers remember passages from a book despite having no LT recall.
VISUO-SPATIAL SKETCHPAD - INNER SCRIBE & VISUAL CACHE Deals with visual info and spatial relationships between them i.e. getting from one room to another. TEMPORARY STORAGE. SUPPORTING EVIDENCE: DOING 2 TASKS THAT INVOLVE DIFFERENT COMPONENTS MEAN PERFORMANCE IS NOT AFFECTED. Task 1 involves CE & Task 2 involves AL alone OR CE & AL or no additional task. Same speed when different component used/no extra task. Task 1 slower when given CE and AL. 2 tasks that involve same component cause DIFFICULTY. EVIDENCE FOR CE fMRI showed CE activation with a dual-task & single task. Brain activation was higher with dual task which indicates INCREASED ATTENTIONAL DEMANDS - function of CE.
EVIDENCE FOR PL AND AP EXPLAINS WORD-LENGTH EFFECT. People cope better with short words than long. PL rehearses short words easily but not long as they don't fit. AP proved by articulatory suppression i.e. by doing a repetitive task saying 'the the the' - the AP is tied so shorter words can't be rehearsed quicker than longer & word-length effect disappears. EVIDENCE FOR VSS VISUAL TRACKING TASK AND CALCULATING ANGLES DIFFICULT TO DO - SAME COMPONENT. VISUAL TRACKING TASK AND VERBAL TASK NOT DIFFICULT AS DIFFERENT COMPONENTS INVOLVED. EVIDENCE FOR EB: Related words better recalled than non-related words - supports immediate memory store for non-visual & non-phonological items. (& draw on LTM to link related words)
EVIDENCE FROM BRAIN-DAMAGED PATIENTS Explains KF's ST memory deficit as he had no problem with LTM but elements of immediate STM memory impaired. Brain damage restricted to PL as he forgot auditory information quickly but his visual stimuli was not that problematic. SC also had PL damage as he still had generally good learning abilities. LH performed better on visual tasks than visual spatial tasks suggesting separate visual & spatial systems. Shows DISTINCTION BETWEEN VISUAL AND PHONOLOGICAL SYSTEMS HENCE DIFFERENT STORES.
STRENGTHS 1. EXPLAINS WORD-LENGTH EFFECT. 2. DIRECT LINKS BETWEEN CERTAIN TASKS AND ACTIVATION OF CERTAIN BRAIN AREAS = PHYSICAL DEMONSTRATIONS OF COMPONENTS OF WMM. 3.RECOGNISES DIFFERENT AREAS OF MEMORY. 4.ABUNDANT EVIDENCE FOR BRIEF MEMORY STORE: MANY SUB-COMPONENTS. 5. SHOWS MAINTENANCE REHEARSAL AS OPTIONAL. 6. EMPHASISES PROCESS OVER STRUCTURE. 7. EXPLANATORY POWER - HIGHLIGHTS IMMEDIATE MEMORY HOLDS MOST RECENTLY ACTIVATED POORTION OF LTM RATHER THAN WAY-STATION TO AND FROM LTM. MOVES ACTIVATED ELEMENTS IN & OUT OF BRIEF TEMPORARY STORAGE LIMITATIONS CENTRAL EXECUTIVE NOT EXPLAINED: TOO VAGUE. PROBABLY MORE COMPLEX THAN CURRENTLY REPRESENTED. LIKELY TO BE COMPONENTS AS DAMASIO SHOWS EVR TO HAVE A CEREBRAL TUMOUR REMOVED. REASONING WAS INTACT BUT POOR DECISION-MAKING SUGGESTS CE HAS MANY COMPONENTS. RELIANCE ON CASE STUDIES OF INDIVIDUALS : NO 'BEFORE AND AFTER' COMPARISONS SO IT'S NOT CLEAR WHETHER CHANGES ARE CAUSED BY ACCIDENT. BRAIN INJURY IS TRAUMATIC AND CAN CHANGE BEHAVIOUR ITSELF. VALIDITY 1. USE OF WORD LISTS 2. PARTICIPANTS USUALLY PSYCHO STUDENTS 3. LAB EXPERIMENT SO THERE'S DEMAND CHARACTERISTIXS & EXPERIMENTER BIAS
ACCURACY OF EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY: IMPORTANCE OF MISLEADING INFO. LOFTUS AND PALMER (1974) 1. 45 STUDENTS SHOWN 7 FILMS OF DIFFERENT TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS. 2. PARTICIPANTS GIVEN QUESTIONNAIRES TO DESCRIBE ACCIDENT WITH SPECIFIC SERIES OF QUESTIONS. 3. ONE CRITICAL QUESTION : ABOUT HOW FAST WERE THE CARS GOING WHEN THEY HIT EACH OTHER? OTHER 5 GROUPS HAD THE WORD 'HIT' REPLACED WITH 'smashed, collided, bumped, contacted.' 4. VERB IMPLICATION LED TO INACCURATE RECALL - HIGHLIGHTS IMPORTANCE OF MISLEADING INFO VERB | MEAN SPEED (mph) SMASHED | 40.3 COLLIDED | 39.3 BUMPED | 38.1 HIT | 34 CONTACTED | 31.8 Experiment shows QUESTIONING FORM can have SIGNIFICANT EFFECT on witness' answer. Suggests post-event info can cause material alteration causing permanent effects to that memory.
EXPERIMENT 2 1. NEW SET OF PARTICIPANTS WATCHED CAR ACCIDENT LASTING 1 MINUTE. 2. 3 GROUPS: 2 GROUPS WERE GIVEN 10 QUESTIONS, ONE OF WHICH USED THE VERB 'SMASHED' THE OTHER 'HIT' 3. ASKED TO RETURN 1 WEEK LATER & ASKED 'DID YOU SEE BROKEN GLASS?' (NO BROKEN GLASS IN FILM SO IT WAS MISLEADING INFO) 4. ONE CONTROL GROUP DID NOT HAVE QUESTIONS ABOUT SPEED OF CARS 5. THOSE WHO THOUGHT THAT THE CAR WAS TRAVELLING AT A FASTER SPEED I.E. 'SMASHED' WERE MORE INCLINED TO SAY THERE WAS BROKEN GLASS. YES | NO SMASH : 16 | 34 HIT: 7 | 43 CONTROL: 6 | 44 SUGGESTS MISLEADING POST-EVENT INFO CHANGES THE WAY INFO IS STORED.
EVALUATION: LOFTUS ET AL CAR STOPPED AT 'STOP' SIGN 1. 'Did another car pass the red at STOP sign?' 'Did another car pass the red at YIELD sign?' HAD TO IDENTIFY SLIDE IN ORIGINAL SEQUENCE. 75% OF PARTICIPANTS WHO HAD CONSISTENT QUESTIONS PICKED CORRECT SLIDE OF STOP. 41% OF THOSE WITH MISLEADING QUESTION PICKED CORRECT. CLEARLY MISLEADING QUESTIONS AFFECTED RECALL. BEKERIAN AND BOWERS REPLICATED STUDY & PUT PICS IN NORMAL ORDER: BOTH GROUPS' RECOLLECTION WERE THE SAME. SUGGESTS POST EVENT INFO AFFECTS RETRIEVAL NOT STORAGE. DNA EXONERATION SHOWS EYE-WITNESS IDENTIFICATION IS NOT ALWAYS CREDIBLE AND WHEN USED AS LARGEST SINGLE FACTOR CAN LEAD TO CONVICTION OF INNOCENT PEOPLE. WARNING FOR JUSTICE SYSTEM. YUILLE & CUTSHALL INTERVIEWED 13 PEOPLE ABOUT ROBBERY IN CANADA 4 MONTHS AFTER CRIME & INCLUDED 2 MISLEADING Q'S: EYE WITNESSES STILL SHOWED ACCURATE REECALL WHICH SUGGESTS PEI DOES NOT AFFECT MEMORY IN REAL-LIFE EWT. NOT VALID AS LAB EXPERIMENTS DON'T REFLECT REAL LIFE & DON'T INCLUDE THE FACTOR OF EMOTIONAL AROUSAL - FORSTER ET AL SHOWS THOSE MORE EMOTIONALLY AFFECTED BY EVENT SHOW MORE ACCURATE RECALL. MALES AND FEMALES INDISTINGUISHABLE DESPITE THE FACT THEY TAKE INTEREST IN DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF A SCENE. LINDSAY SHOWS ELDERS ARE MORE PRONE TO FORGET THE SOURCE OF THEIR INFORMATION AS OPPOSED TO YOUNGER OBJECTS, MAKING THEM MORE EASILY MISLED. VALIDITY LAB EXPERIMENT - LOW MUNDANE REALISM PARTICIPANTS NOT EMOTIONALLY INVOLVED FOSTER ET AL - BETTER IDENTIFICATION WITH REAL LIFE SET UP
ANXIETY: DEFFENBACHER: META-ANALYSIS OF 18 STUDIES SHOWED HIGH LEVELS OF STRESS NEGATIVELY IMPACT ACCURACY OF EWT. CHRISTIANSON & HUBBINETT : 58 REAL WITNESSES OF REAL ROBBERIES WERE INTERVIEWED. THOSE WHO'D BEEN THREATENED BY THE ROBBER GAVE MORE ACCURATE DETAILS WHEREAS ONLOOKERS - LESS EMOTIONALLY AROUSED - REMEMBERED LESS DETAILS. ANXIETY INCREASES RECALL ACCURACY IN REAL LIFE EVENTS WEAPON FOCUS EFFECT: WEAPON FOCUS EFFECT - JOHNSON AND SCOTT : PARTICIPANTS HEARD ARGUMENT & MAN WITH GREASE AND PEN IN HAND EMERGED: WHEN ASKED TO IDENTIFY HIM FROM 50 PHOTOS: 49% ACCURATE. WHEN MAN WITH PAPERKNIFE AND BLOOD EMERGED IN CONDITION 2: 33% ACCURACY SUGGESTED WEAPON DISTRACTED ATTENTION LED TO POOR RECALL OF CERTAIN DETAILS. Yerkes - Dodson law states recall performance of EWT improves with increase in arousal to an OPTIMAL POINT before declining with extreme arousal. SUPPORTS OTHER STUDIES AND SHOWS CURVILINEAR RELATIONSHIP. STEBLY META ANALYSIS - WEAPON FOCUS EFFECT DOES DECREASE ACCURACY OF RECALL LOFTUS - TRACKED EYE MOVEMENTS AND FOUND PRESENCE OF WEAPON CAUSES ATTENTION TO BE PHYSICALLY DRAWN TO WEAPON & AWAY FROM OTHER THINGS RINOLO ET AL - Titanic sinking shows that even under extreme trauma: accurate recollection can still occur as 75% of survivors said Titanic sunk breaking apart and this was later vindicated.
AGE PARKER AND CARRANZA: Children have higher rate of choosing identification pics & higher rates of error than college students & adults. Yarmey: 651 adults in public place stopped, asked to identify woman who'd spoken to them for 15 seconds 2 mins earlier. Showed though younger & middle aged are more confident in recall, there's no significant difference in accuracy between them and elder people. Delay of 35 minutes between identification and recall showed no difference in accuracy between young and old. However when delayed by one week, accuracy of elders significantly decreased! EVALUATION OWN-AGE BIAS Stimuli of similar aged tasks show increase in accurate performance in EWT. Young and middle aged more significantly accurate than elders, but everyone was more accurate in identifying photographs from own age group. Own-race DUE TO DIFFERENTIAL EXPERIENCE I.E. THOSE WHO YOU ENCOUNTER MOST, YOU ARE MORE FAMILIAR WITH AND THEREFORE IDENTIFY BETTER ALCOHOL MYOPIA EXPLAINS WHY ALCOHOL DECREASES ATTENTION & THEREFORE RECALL
COGNITIVE INTERVIEW (FISHER AND GEISELMANN) - Police technique for interviewing witnesses & encourages recreation of context to increase accessibility of stored information i.e. a sequence of events in a crime. ORIGINAL 1) REPORT EVERYTHING - every detail of the event must be mentioned no matter if they appear irrelevant. 2) MENTAL REINSTATEMENT OF ORIGINAL CONTEXT : Mentally recreate environment & contacts from event 3) CHANGE ORDER : Alternative ways through timeline of incident established e.g. reversing events. 4) CHANGING PERSPECTIVE : Asked to recall the event from multiple perspectives i.e. a bystander somewhere else.
First 2 components based on principle that there is consistency between actual event and recreated situations - increased likeness between the 2 lead to increase recall of more events that are high in accuracy. Latter 2 components based on assumption that info (the event) has been observed & can be retrieved through different routes so variation in route is productive and reaps more accurate recall.
EVALUATION STRENGTHS Combination of first 2 components i.e. report everything & mental reinstatement led to significantly increased recall than other 'try again' conditions. However recall using the components alone was broadly similar & no different to that of the control group Useful for older people due to the negative stereotypes that with age comes less memory etc. CI gives them confidence as it reinforces that every single detail, no matter how invaluable may appear, is important. CI more useful for older people in general. Useful in developing countries like Brazil where torture & extreme interrogation occur which sometimes lead to miscarriages of justice. CI was seen to be more superior in producing FORENSICALLY RICH INFORMATION which led to a detailed description of armed offenders & therefore better police determination of the status of the crime & the criminals. CI is potentially a new approach for such countries to more effective convictions & less miscarriages of justice. META-ANALYSIS 34% INCREASE IN CORRECT RECALL DIFFICULTIES Different police forces use different variations of the CI e.g. Thames Valley Police use the same as Fisher and Geiselman without 'changing perspectives.' However most use CI and a collection of related techniques - many sticking to Report everything & mental reinstatement. Not time-effective as it requires recollection of every detail. However police prefer to use deliberate strategies that limit an eyewitness' account to what is necessary for police intelligence. ENHANCED CI Enhanced CI suggests probing a witness' mental image of an event: this means GREATER DEMAND FOR SKILLED INTERVIEWERS may mean CI training needs increasing - however Brazil application shows CI can produce significant increase in EWT recall.
STRATEGIES FOR MEMORY IMPROVEMENT VERBAL MNEMONICS 1. ACRONYM - ROYGBIV - Red, orange, yellow etc. Initial letter relates to word. 2. ACROSTIC - My Very Easy Method Just Speeds Up Naming Planets - Mercury Venus Earth Mars ... First letter in each word leads to remembrance of meaningful item 3. RHYMES - Words with identity and rhythm 4. CHUNKING - long memorable strings of info put into memorable chunks e.g. postcodes VISUAL IMAGERY MNEMONICS Method of loci - Associating places with words. Keyword method - Associating 2 pieces of info e.g. learning foreign languages. Associating a common English word with like-sounding foreign word, so by remembering the English word - foreign visual association is conjured MIND MAPS & SPIDER DIAGRAMS - Drawing words in a branching pattern with main topic in centre & components radiating outwards. Made unique with colours & sketches - visual cues help conjure verbal material
EVALUATION STRENGTHS VERBAL MNEMONICS (ACRONYMS & ACROSTICS) WERE MOST POPULAR FOR 30% OF PSYCH STUDENTS DOING REVISION. EFFECTIVE WITH CHILDREN WITH LEARNING DIFFICULTIES (Memory deficits) - Effectiveness evident up to 12 months EFFECTIVE FOR THOSE WITH Down Syndrome - STM Memory deficits - 63 people 4 - 18 years assessed with tests. PHASE 2 - Divided into experimental and control group - experimental received training in memory improvement techniques. PHASE 3 was a repeat of phase 1 and showed a significantly improve memory skills among exp. group. TRAINING IN VIS. IMAGERY MNEMONICS E.G. METHOD OF LOCI IMPROVES MEMORY - LTM BENEFITS FOR OLDER ADULTS - ESPECIALLY THOSE WHO CONTINUALLY USE THE TECHNIQUE AFTER TRAINING KEYWORD METHOD TRAINING MEANT IMPROVES MEMORY OF REMEMBERING RUSSIAN VOCAB AS OPPOSED TO CONTROL GROUPS LIMITATION : Invalid results as the studies take place in artificial, lab conditions using materials appropriate for mnemonic strategy testing. NOT REAL LIFE. E.g. real-life classroom applications show more mixed results e.g. learning foreign vocab is effective with mnemonics but speaking the language better is not proven to improve as a result.
HOW MNEMONICS WORK Organisation - By organising data we establish links that help recall; creating memory hooks through association and organising materials by putting them in conceptual order or a hierarchy. Studies show recall is 2 - 3 times better when words are put into conceptual orders than when in random order. Elaborative rehearsal - mnemonic techniques make us elaborate info to be remembered e.g. mind map. Nature of rehearsal (elaboration) is more important than maintenance! Dual coding hypothesis Paivio - Words and images processed differently - concrete words made into images - double encoding as there is both a verbal and image-based symbol of that info thus increasing likelihood of rememberance.
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