Fundamentals of the Nervous System

Britney Matthews
Flashcards by Britney Matthews, updated more than 1 year ago
Britney Matthews
Created by Britney Matthews over 3 years ago
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CHAPTER 1 OF MOORE CLINICALLY ORIENTED ANATOMY
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Question Answer
Nervous System is divided structurally into... CNS and PNS
Nervous System is divided functionally into... SNS and ANS
Central Nervous System brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System nerve fibers and their nerve cell bodies that reside outside the CNS CN I-XII and 31 spinal nerves
What is the functional unit of the nervous system? Neurons
What are neurons composed of? cell body, dendrites, and axons
Neuronal axons (nerve fibers) transmit impulses to other neurons or to a target organ or muscle
Sensory Nerves transmit impulses to the CNS from peripheral sensory organs
Nucleus collection of nerve cell bodies in CNS
Ganglion nerve cell body aggregation in the PNS
Tract bundle of nerve fibers that connect the nuclei in CNS
Nerve bundle of nerve fibers, the connective tissue holding it together, and blood vessels
Cranial Nerves nerves exiting the cranium
Spinal Nerves nerves exiting the vertebral column
Nervous tissues consists of 2 types of cells neurons (nerve cells) and neuroglia (glia cells)
What 3 layers make up the meninges/spinal cord? pia mater, arachnoid mater, dura mater
Pia mater innermost meningeal layer, delicate, transparent covering
Where is the cerebrospinal fluid located? Subdural space. between the pia mater and arachnoid mater
Dura Mater thick tough layer external to pia and arachnoid mater
What separates the dura mater from vertebral column? The fat filled epidural space
Peripheral Nervous System Function nerve fibers and cell bodies outside the CNS conduct impulses to/away from CNS
Central Nervous System Function brain and spinal cord. integrate and coordinate incoming/outgoing neural signals, carry out higher mental functions
Nerve Fiber consists of... axon, neurolemma,and surrounding endoneurial connective tissue
Neurolemma Schwann Cells surrounding axon (myelinated or unmyelinated)
Nerve fibers are supported and protected by... Endoneurium, Perineurium, and Epineurium
PNS consists of what 2 nerve fibers? afferent and efferent fibers
Afferent fibers sensory convey neural impulses to CNS from sense organs
Efferent Fibers motor convey neural impulses from CNS to effector muscles
Cranial Nerves CN I-XII exit the cranium foramina
Spinal Nerves 31 pairs (plus spinal root XI) exit the vertebral column thru intervertebral foramina
Spinal Level vs Vertebral Level cord vs bone
Where do spinal nerves originally arise from? nerve rootlets
Rootlets converge into 2 nerve roots... Anterior (ventral) nerve root Posterior (dorsal) nerve root
Anterior Nerve Roots motor (efferent) fibers nerve cell bodies in anterior horn of gray matter to effector organs
Posterior Nerve Roots sensory (afferent) fibers from cell bodies in spinal or posterior root ganglion extending peripherally to sensory endings and centrally to posterior horn of gray matter
What forms when posterior and anterior nerve roots unite? Spinal nerve
What happens after the spinal nerve forms from the posterior and anterior nerve roots? divides into posterior and anterior rami
Dermatome unilateral area of skin innervated by sensory fibers of single spinal nerve
Myotome unilateral muscle innervated by single spinal nerve
Posterior (primary) rami of spinal nerves supply synovial joints, deep muscles of back, and overlying skin in segmental pattern (NO PLEXUSES)
Anterior (primary) rami of spinal nerves supply anterior/lateral areas of trunk, UEs, LEs. Can form into somatic nerve PLEXUSES creating multisegmental peripheral nerves
Somatic Fibers somatosensory fibers and somatic motor fibers
Somatosensory Fibers transmit sensation from body to CNS exteroceptive or proprioceptive senstaions
Somatic Motor transmit impulses to skeletal muscles
Visceral Fibers visceral sensory fibers and visceral motor fibers
Visceral sensory fibers smallest component transmit pain or subconscious visceral reflex sensations Ex. stretch and distention and nonlocalized abd pain
Visceral Motor Fibers impulses to smooth muscle and glandular tissues presynaptic and postsynaptic
Somatic Nervous System
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