Ju Ju on that OT1


Notes for Old Testament 1 Midterm
Rudi Rudisill
Flashcards by Rudi Rudisill, updated more than 1 year ago
Rudi Rudisill
Created by Rudi Rudisill over 7 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
Canon Accepted Body of works (Rule) Accepted Scriptures 3 Canons Hebrew canon =TaNAKh- Torah (law) (pentateuch) (5 books) Nevi'im (prophets, narrative, except Ruth) Kethuhbim- Poetic books writings, wisdom literature, Ruth Protestant Canon = OT, NT Catholic Canon = OT, NT Apochrypha (Deuterocanonicals)
Manuscript (Manuscript families) Hand written copies of one or more parts of scripture
Sopherim Scribes, bookmen, Jewish scholars
Masoretes Annotators, made notes in the margins of the manuscripts
Septuagint LXX (First translation of OT) LXX means 70 but there were 72 writers Translated into Greek around 2 BCE Books consider to be a part of OT were written middle of 2nd BCE
Targums Another translations into other languages such as Syriac and Aramaic
Vulgate o 4th century common area. Jerome went to Rabbis and learned Hebrew and single handedly translated bible into Latin o Vulgar means common o The only bible people could get access to for 1,000 years o Long after Latin language was dead and only priests could read so they could teach any way they wanted
Documentary Hypothesis Thanks Simplified version of who wrote the Bible. Acknowledges different writers at different times JEPD
J source Yahwist- anthropomorphisms earliest source (written in the south) God is personal earthy language God is LORD
E Elohist Written later, from the northern kingdom More elegant language God is more distant Appears from a distance (cloud) Elohim
D Deuternomist You will obey and I will Bless Quid pro quo Probably Exilic Covenant based God called by different names
P Priestly Source Post Exilic written after 538 Poetic Language, legalistic, formal (numbers) God was called by different names
Exegesis “to lead out”, to tease out the meaning of the text, hermeneutics (interpretation). o Analysis of the words, how they are put together, how the words in small passage fit into larger context, how it fits into culture of when context was written, how was it read through the years. o What was written? o In what setting was it written? o Why was it written? o How does it fit in larger context?
Hermaneutics Interpretation
Etiology The story of how things came to be
Creation Story 1 P Source Dramatic and eloquent God distant and powerful Took 7 days Influenced from Babylon Humans Created Last
Creation Story 2 J Source Earthy God is Yahweh Elohim Personable Took 1 Day Older Tradition Man Created Second Woman last, part of man
The Fall Genesis 3 J Source Earthy Language Tells a story God is there in garden Largely etiological
Flood Stories (ch. 6-9) o Sumerian: King Ziusudra, Utu, Anu, and Enil  Gods grew angry at black headed people (they called themselves black headed) and sent a flood to destroy humankind. Z built a great boat and all the windstorm attached as one and the flood swept over for 7 days and nights. Z opened a window and U (the son a god) entered the boat. o Babylonian: Atra-Hasis/Utnapishtim, Ea, Enil  High god Enil decided to destroy humans for one human because of population control, because people were making too much noise. Gods created people to do the gods work for them. Ea tells AH about the plan, and it would be wise to build a boat. o Herbrew  God sends flood because humans have grown so wicked.
Flood Stories (J and P) Clearly 2 distinct stories woven into 1 P source was 2 of each animals for a year long flood J source was distinction of clean versus unclean animals for 40 days and 40 nights
Ancestor Stories 2 stories about ancestry Purpose is to describe re-population after flood
Table of Nations Genesis 10 Ham- Caannites (slaves, mesopotamia)((cursed for looking at naked Abraham)) Shem-Semites (Middle Eastern People) Japheth- Went towards the islands (sea-farers and Europeans)
Tower of Babel Genesis 11 J Source No knowledge of Noah and Sons Etiology for how people got across the earth Babylon (Gate of God ) (Babel = confuse) God confused them by mixing languages Ziggurat (Square wedding cake tower)
The Two Histories Primeval Genesis 1-11 Patriarchal 12-50
Primeval History Creation, Flood, Re-population Abram enters end of chapter 11
Patriarchal History ch. 12- 50 Patriarchs of Israel Small independent states Sons were prized (primogeniture) Mostly Caananites Blessings and Curses were thought to have powers Gods often localized
Changing Theism Over time Polytheism- Worship of many gods Changed to Henotheism- Many gods but only worship one Eventually became Monotheism- One God (8th century development)
Practices o Practices included sacrifices, covenant making, circumcision  Circumcision Genesis 17 (has been practice before this chapter in other areas) but was given as a covenant - If person breaks a covenant they get cut
Theophany • Greek for an appearance from God o J- anthropomorphic o E- through angel o P- appearance of fear (Abraham)
Abraham Full of Promise • Primary theme is that God made a covenant with Israel for the good of the world. And its for the good of Israel • The command, a radical command: “leave…and go” (v. 1) Abram is told to leave his kindred, and country and father’s house (suggest his immediate family). God calls Abram to leave behind everything and doesn’t even tell him where he’s going. Abram had tremendous trust and amazement that God had spoken to him. • Then God offers radical promises: (God is promising this to a 75 year old man that doesn’t have any children.)
Progeny and Property  To be a great nation you need children and land.  Progeny: children, descendants  Property  The rest of the book of Genesis is concerned with the fulfillment of the promise of progeny. It tells how we got form Abraham to 12 tribes. And all the way into Judges is how they got the property, promise land. Outline of the next several books of Bible.
A blessing  When human says a blessing it is powerful, imagine how powerful when God says a blessing.
A name  The people wanted to make a names for themselves (tower of Babel) but God promises to make a great name for Abraham
A chance to bless the world  A promise to become a blessing to the entire world.
J's Didactic Scheme o The stories are designed to teach an important lesson: Yahweh’s promises may be threatened, but God is faithful and can be trusted to fulfill the promises.
Primary Themes of Exodus Deliverance Covenant Presence
Deliverance • From oppressors in Egypt (1:1-15:21) o Plagues prove power and presence of God.
Covenant • Israel at Sinai (19-24) o The book of the covenant (21-23) o Israel swear fealty to Yahweh (24) o This is the first time God enters a covenant with all the people of Israel. (19) o Where Israel is born • Priestly rules and regulations are given (25-31) • Israel rejects, reaffirms the covenant (32-34) o Golden calf • Moses fulfills all ritual regulations (35-40)
Presence Presence (get these notes offline, test question: cumulative proof of the presence) This is one place the presence of God is highlighted. • Note the “cumulative proof of the presence” demonstrated in plagues, deliverance at sea. o Moses is demonstrated just as much to Egyptians as he is the Israelites. o Ignorance o Limited obedience o Fearful obedience (12:31-32
Ten Commandments Exodus 20 First four how to relate to God Last six how to relate to others
Leviticus (Almost entirely from the P source) Instructions for Sacrifice  Burnt offerings (1:1-17) • Only time you burn the whole lamb • Still slaughter and skin  Cereal offerings (2:1-16) • Wheat  Sin offerings (3:1-6:30) • H’tah (means sin) • Mostly to purify the sanctuary because it has been defiled by human sin  Guilt offerings (7:1-27) • Asham • Reparations  “Peace” (shelamim)(plural of shalom) offerings (7:28-38) • Ritual to eat meat (didn’t get to do often)
Leviticus (continued) Setting: Mount Sinai Rules about Sacrifice Day of Atonement Holiness Code: Created to make Israel distinct from their neighbors *Found ch. 17-26
Beginnings of worship for people of Israel: chs. 8-10 The consecration of Aaron as high priest reportedly sets in motion the rules previously given. This seems to take up the narrative from Exod. 29:35
Regulations on cultic purity: chs. 11-15 Laws about individual purity, cleanliness/uncleanliness Clean food, clean water (ch. 11) Rules for women regarding birth and bleeding (ch. 12) Rules about skin diseases (ch. 13-14) Rules for men regarding “discharges” and “emissions” (15:1-18) More rules for women regarding menstruation (15:19-33)
Rules for day of atonement Probably a late insertion, rarely mentioned elsewhere. • Rules for annual sacrifices and a “scapegoat” ceremony: as part of Day of Atonement ceremony they’d take goat, and priest would put his hands on it and pray, and all the sins would be put into the goat, the goat is sent out into the wilderness for the demons and whatever bad things might be in the desert to kill it. A way of purity for Israel, they put their sins on the goat. (TEST: Where would you find the rules for the Day of Atonement? Leviticus)
The Holiness Code: chs. 17-26 Thought to be the oldest part of the books, note repeated refrain “You shall be holy, for I am holy” (Lev. 19:2, etc.). Spells out what “being holy” means in practical terms. Includes rules about foot, nakedness, sacrifices, relationship to others, animal breeding, avoiding witchcraft, respecting elders, rules regarding adultery, along having intercourse with relatives or animals, rules about prostitutes, qualifications for priests, rules for the observance of religious festivals and of the Sabbath, rules about debts, slavery, and the Jubilee year. And, a section (26:3-46) that sounds like it comes straight from Deuteronomy. • What the priest thought holiness meant in practical terms. • What’s the big deal? Why should it matter if I sow corn and stream beams together? Why can’t we blend two types of fabric? It seems to be related to the idea that the whole purpose of the rules is to make Israel distinctive. Holy isn’t just about being pious or ritually pure, holy carries the notion of separateness, these rules would set Israel apart. It would set them a
Dedicatory gifts: ch. 27 Gifts for Dedication
Themes of Leviticus 1. Preserving foundational laws, in danger of being forgotten, but attributing them all to Moses at Mount Sinai. 2. To explain the various tragedies as punishment for failing to keep the ritual laws. 3. To encourage present and future adherence to the laws of holiness. 4. To redefine sacrifice as primarily a means of atonement. *This is where we get rules about sacrifice, day of atonement, and holiness code.
Caleb and Joshua TEST: Caleb and Joshua were not afraid, they were the faithful and were the only 2 allowed to enter the promise land.
Shema to listen Deuteronomy 6 (know where found)
Story of Balaam Numbers 22-26 Balaam was paid to curse Israel but his Donkey spoke and told him not to. Ended up blessing Israel and cursing other peopl
Isaac Rebecca's husband
Rachel Mother of Joseph and Benjamin (Jacobs Wife)
Deuteronomic History Theology Ch. 28 Focuses on Curses and Blessing Quid pro quo Guided theology for much of OT
Texts to Remember • A call to remembers (4:32) o God called on Israel to remember how he had brought them out of Egypt, parted the Red Sea, fed them, etc. The many ways God had delivered them. • A reminder o the 10 Commandments (5:6-21) o First 4 are ones relationship to God. o Other 6 are how we relate to other people. • A call to teach (the shema, 6:1-9) o TEST: shema: means listen o Yahweh is our God, Yahweh is one. They don’t seen to come to a place of monotheism yet, the commandments imply that there are other Gods but you don’t worship them.
Criticisms to remember Text Form Source Redaction Rhetorical
Text Someone has to put all of the manuscripts together and compare them. Determine which reading of the text is closest to what author intended
Form Hermann Gunkel Sitz-im-leban what was the context in which this was written? Literally it means situation in life. (Gunkel came up with this) o What literary form do we have here. o We write different things for different reasons and in different forms, a personal letter is different than a letter to the editor, they take different forms.
Source Who wrote what? Multiple sources Why there are different authors Julius Wellhausen*
Redaction o Richard Friedman o *Tendentious: trying to make a point. Lighter wait version of propaganda. Written to persuade. o Especially important in our understanding of the Torah, because these books seemed to have gone under varies edits. Its important to understand the Bible was written, it came together in such a way to make a theological point. Historical writings aren’t there to record history, they are there to record a particular way of understanding history.
Rhetorical Similar to form, but looking deeper into literary intricacies
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