Cells, Organs and Populations

Freya Wilson
Flashcards by Freya Wilson, updated more than 1 year ago
Freya Wilson
Created by Freya Wilson over 7 years ago


GCSE Science (Biology) Flashcards on Cells, Organs and Populations, created by Freya Wilson on 03/26/2014.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Name five parts of a cell that both plant and animal cells have. What three things do plant cells have that animal cells don’t? - Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Cell Membrane, Mitochondria and Ribosomes - Cell Wall, Vacuole and Chloroplast
Where is the genetic material found in bacterial cells and animal cells? - Cytoplasm - Nucleus
What is diffusion? - The spreading out of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Name three substances that can diffuse through cell membrane, and two that can’t. - Oxygen, glucose and amino acids - Starch and proteins
Give three ways that a palisade leaf cell is adapted for photosynthesis. – Packed with chloroplasts for photosynthesis. – Tall shape means a lot of surface area exposed down the side for absorbing CO2. – Thin shape means that you can pack loads of them in at the top of a leaf.
Give three ways that a sperm cell is adapted for swimming to an egg cell. – It has a long tail and a streamlined head to help it swim to the egg. – There are lots of mitochondria in the cell to provide the energy needed. – Sperm carry enzymes in their heads to digest through the egg cell membrane.
What is a tissue? What is an organ? – A tissue is a group of similar cells that work together to carry out a particular function. – An organ is a group of different tissues that work together to perform a certain function.
Give three examples of tissues in the human stomach, and say what job they do. – Muscular tissue, which moves the stomach wall to churn up the food. – Glandular tissue, which makes digestive juices to digest food. – Epithelial tissue, which covers the outside and inside of the stomach.
Name one organ system found in the human body. - Digestive system
Give an example of a plant tissue and a plant organ. – Mesophyll tissue - Stems
Write down the equation for photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide + water -> glucose + oxygen
What is the green substance in leaves that absorbs sunlight? - Chlorophyll
Name the three factors that can limit the rate of photosynthesis. – Light – Temperature – Amount of CO2
You carry out an experiment where you can change the light intensity experienced by a piece of Canadian pondweed by changing the distance between the pondweed and a lamp supplying it with light. Write down three important things which must be kept constant for this experiment to be a fair test – use a bench lamp to control the intensity of light. – keep the flask in a water bath to help keep the temperature constant. – use a large flask, and do the experiment as quickly as you can, so that the plant doesn’t use up too much of the CO2 in the flask.
Explain why it’s important that a plant doesn’t get too hot. – If a plant gets too hot the enzymes it needs for photosynthesis and its other reactions will be damaged.
Describe three things that a gardener could do to make sure she grows a good crop of tomatoes in her greenhouse. – Supply artificial light after the sun goes down to give their plants more quality photosynthesis time - In winter use a heater to keep the temperature at the ideal level. – Add fertilisers to the soil as well, to provide all the minerals needed for healthy growth.
Why is glucose turned into starch when plants need store it for later? - It’s ready for use when photosynthesis isn’t happening, like in the winter.
Write down four other ways that plants can use the glucose produced by photosynthesis. – For respiration - Making Cell Walls - Making Proteins - Stored in Seeds
What is a habitat? – A habitat is the place where an organism lives.
Give five environmental factors that can affect the distribution of organisms. - Temperature - Availability of water - Availability of carbon dioxide and oxygen - Availability of nutrients. – Amount of light
Briefly describe how you could find out how common an organism is in two sample areas using quadrats. – Place a 1m2 quadrat on the ground at a random point within the first sample area. – Count all the organisms within the quadrat. – Repeat steps 1 and 2 as many times as you can. – Work out the mean number of organisms per quadrat within the first sample area. – Repeat steps 1 to 4 in the second sample area. – Finally compare the two means.
Describe one way of using a transect to find out how an organism is distributed across an area. – Mark out a line in the area you want to study using a tape measure. – Then collect the data along the line. – You can do this by just counting all the organisms you’re interested in that touch the line.
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