English Terminology

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Flashcards on English Terminology, created by tom4413 on 05/03/2013.

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Created by tom4413 almost 6 years ago
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Question Answer
Lexis Vocabulary
Mode Whether the text is spoken or written
Semantics How meaning is created through words or phrases.
Syntax A system of rules about how these types of words function in relation to each other
Phonology The study of sounds in English
Prosody Features of spoken language like pace, rhythm, stress and intonation
Pragmatics How social conventions, context, personality and relationships influence the choices people make about their language
Graphology Study of appearance of writing
Discourse Extended piece of spoken or written language
Cohesion How discourse fits together
Morphology Construction of individual words
Superlative The most
Inflection Added part to a word
Synonyms Different words for the same thing
Neologisms New words due to development of science and technology
Denotation Dictionary definition of a word
Connotation Associations or emotions associated with a word
Antonyms Words with opposite meanings
Metonymy Using a part of something to describe the whole thing
Figurative expressions Figures of speech not supposed to be taken literally
Hyperbole Using exaggeration for effect
Phonology The study of sound systems of languages
Phoneme A unit of sound
Phonetics How speech sounds are made and received
Elision When sounds are left out
Typeface Font
Serif Small strokes on the end of letters
Accent Variation in pronunciation
Dialect Variations in language
Workman 2008 Studied people's perceptions of different accents and found Yorkshire most intelligent, Birmingham least intelligent
Codify How to write language
Received Pronunciation Is an accent associated with educated people and upper classes, yet not from a region
Estuary English Some say it is replacing RP as the most 'acceptable' English accent and it has roots in the language spoken around the Thames Estuary
Sociolect Language of social groups
Idiolect Unique language of an individual
Slang Informal, non standard words
Elitist Excluding people who don't understand
Trudgill 1983 Studied men and women's social class accents, and found that women's pronunciation is closer to RP
Cheshire 1982 Studied speech of adolescent girls and boys and found boys more likely to use non-standard grammatical forms
Overt prestige Prestige of being associated with respectable and well-off sections of society
Covert prestige The prestige of being considered rebellious and independent
Robin Lakoff 1975 Identified features that she felt characteristic of women's language; hedges and fillers, apologetic requests, tag questions and indirect requests
Deficit approach The approach devised by Robin Lakoff. Features of women's language reflect inferior social status and makes it worse by making them seem needy, indecisive and weaker than men
Hedges and fillers Fragments of language like 'sort of', 'kind of', and 'maybe'
Apologetic requests 'I'm sorry but would you mind closing the door?'
Tag questions 'This is nice, isn't it?'
Indirect requests 'It's very noisy outside isn't it?' (Please could you close the door)
O'Barr and Atkins 1980 Suggested alternative to deficit model. Analysed transcripts of American courtroom trials, and male and female witnesses who were of low social status or inexperienced with courtrooms showed many features Lakoff identified as female
Holmes 1984 Suggested women's language isn't weaker, but shows a desire to cooperate
Cameron 2007 There are actually very few differences between men and women's language
Dominance model Approach suggested by Zimmerman and West in 1975. Recorded interruptions between men and women and found 96% by men, reflects males dominance in society
Difference model Approach suggested by Tannen in 1990 that men are concerned with status and independence, giving direct orders, don't mind conflict, and interested in gaining facts and solving problems. Women interested in forming bonds, polite indirect orders and offer support rather than solutions
Beattie 1982 Zimmerman and West's idea is wrong, interruptions aren't about dominance but instead can be supportive
Marked terms Reveal a person's gender
Generic term Marked term referring to both men and women
Lexical asymmetry Pair of words which have similar meaning but aren't equally balanced
Plain English Campaign 1979 Campaign to combat confusing and unnecessary jargon
Humorous persuasive techniques Semantic puns, phonetic puns and figurative language
Numbers for phonemes Like 'gr8'
Affixation Adding a prefix or suffix to an existing word
Interactional language The language of informal speech, which has a purpose to develop relationships between speakers
Referential language Provides listener of information
Expressive language Highlights the speaker's emotions, feelings and attitudes
Transactional language About getting information or making a deal
Phatic language Used for social purposes rather than to convey serious meaning
Ellipsis Part of a grammatical structure is omitted without affecting understanding
False starts Change in train of thought halfway through and begins utterance again
Back-channelling Feed back to the speaker that they're being understood
Deictic expression Pointers that refer the listener backwards, forwards or outside a text. Can't understand them unless context is known
Non-fluency features Devices that interrupt the flow of speech
Hedging Uncertainty in conversation
Adjacency pairs Short, familiar exchanges of conversation that follow predictable patterns
Signalling closure Speech indicators and other non-verbal signs that a conversation is drawing to a close
Ideology Values, thoughts and morals