GCSE History – Social Impact of the Nazi State in 1945

Ben C
Flashcards by , created about 4 years ago

Edexcel GCSE History flashcards for Topic 2C Life in Germany - Social Impact of the Nazi State in 1945.

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Ben C
Created by Ben C about 4 years ago
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Question Answer
What does the ideal Nazi woman look like? -Natural appearance (long hair tied back, no make-up). -Wore traditional clothes. -Fair haired and blue eyed. -Sturdily built.
What would the ideal Nazi woman do? -Not drink or smoke. -Marry and have children. -Believe in the Nazi ideas of Kinder, Küche, Kirche (children, kitchen, church). -Would not go to university. -Would stay at home rather than go to work.
What was the policy for women on family? -Women should get married. -The Law for Encouragement of Marriage, 1933, lent money to couple if the wife left work.
Was this policy a success? The number of marriages did increase, but it's not clear if this was due to Nazi policy.
What is another Nazi women policy on family? -Women should have at least 4 children. -For each child, 1/4 of loan repayments let off. -German Women's Enterprise gave women medals for having children (bronze - 4, silver - 6, gold - 8). -GWE also ran classes and radio programmes on household topics.
Was this policy a success? -GWE had six million members. -Implies women welcomed Nazi policies. -Birth rate increased. -May have been due to the improving economy. -Few women had more than two children.
What was the Nazi policy on women in employment? -Women should not work, especially those who were married. -Many professional women LOST their jobs.
Was this policy a success? -1933-36, number of employed women fell. -Rose again because workforce shortarge during the war. -Employers preferred women to men because their wages were 2/3 that of men.
Name 6 aims of Nazi Education. -To prepare girls to be good wives and mothers. -To create loyal Nazis. -To glorify Germany and the Nazi Party. -To turn boys into strong soldiers who would fight for Germany. -To teach Nazi beliefs about race. -To put across key Nazi ideals.
How did the Nazis control schools? -Children had to attend state school until aged 14. -Separate schools for boys and girls. -Optional schools at 14: --National Political Educational Institutes. --Adolf Hitler Schools. -All schools followed a set curriculum which was different for boys and girls.
How did the Nazis control teachers? -Compulsory for teachers to be Nazi Party members. -Those who didn't teach Nazi ideas were sacked. -Teachers' camps taught them how to use Nazi ideas in their teaching. -Nearly all teachers joined the Nazi Teachers' Association.
How did the Nazis control subjects? -15% of time dedicated to PE. --This ensured a healthy and strong population. -Girls were taught domestic skills, while boys were taught science and military skills. -Both sexes taught traditional subjects: German, History, Geography and Maths. -New subjects: Race studies and Eugenics (selective breeding) were taught to both sexes.
How did the Nazis control propaganda? -All lessons began and ended with the Hitler salute. -From 1935, all textbooks had to be approved by the Nazi Party. -Traditional subjects were rewritten to glorify Germany, including great German writers and History. -Racial ideas and anti-semitism were embedded within subjects.
What was the Hitler Youth Law? -Made in 1936. -Law made it difficult not to join a youth group. -From 1939, joining one was compulsory.
Name 3 uses of youth movements. -They ensured that Nazi control of children when they weren't at school. -All other youth groups were closed down. -Like schools, they concentrated on creating loyal Nazis and preparing children for their future roles.
Name 5 problems with youth movements. -Not all young people joined. -Some children found the activites boring. -Groups altered family life because they took up time at weekends and evenings. -Some parents didn't like them because they taught about allegiance to Hitler and they encouraged children to spy. -Conscription meant there was a shortage of adult leaders.
Who oversaw the Nazi youth movements? Balder von Shirach.
What were the 4 main Nazi youth movements and for what ages were they open? -Young German Folk (boys aged 10-14). -Young Girls (girls aged 14-18). -Hitler Youth (boys aged 14-18). -League of German Maidens (girls aged 14-18).
What was the military role of Nazi youth movements in 1940? They became involved in helping the war effort.
What was the military role of Nazi youth movements in 1943? -Hitler Youth had become a military reserve. -Members as young as 12 joined the army.
What was the name of the two German economic plans? -Four Year Plan. -The New Plan.
Who ran the Four Year Plan? Hermann Göring.
Describe the Four Year Plan. -Whole economy was geared towards rearmament and preparing for war. -Plan cost millions but wasn't a success at making Germany less dependent on foreign imports (autarky).
Who was used as a labour force for the Four Year Plan? Prisoners in labour and concentration camps.
What did the Four Year Plan do in terms of jobs and the army? -Created more jobs in manufacturing army goods. -Incrased the army from 100,000 men in 1933 to 1,400,000 in 1939.
Who was the New Plan run by? Dr Hjalmar Schacht, Minister of the Economy.
Describe the New Plan. -Aimed to reduce unemployment and make Germany self-sufficient. -Successfully limited imports. -Made trade agreements with other countries for vital supplies in return for German goods. -Plan successfully increased trade and production (more jobs).
When and why did Schacht lose his job? -Lost his job in 1937. -Lost it due to a disagreement about rearmament.
What was the German labor service called? Reichsarbeitsdienst (RAD).
Who started the RAD and what did it do? -Started by the Weimar government. -From July 1935, compulsory for all men aged 18-25 to serve 6 months on this scheme. -Work on Job Creation Schemes and other public works such as draining marshes.
What was the opinion on the RAD and why? -Many people hated it. -The pay was low, the hours long and the work boring.
Name 4 examples of Job Creation Schemes. -Built 7000km of autobahns (motorways). -Constructed public buildings. -Construction for the 1936 Olympics. -Subsidized private firms like car manufacturers.
What was invisible unemployment? The groups of people who were missed out of the government employment figures. This included: -Jews being forced out of jobs. -Women being dismissed from jobs. -Unmarried men under 25 doing RAD. -Opponents of the regime sent to concentration camps.
What was the name of the German Labour Front and what did they do? -Deutsche Arbeitsfront (DAF). -They replace trade unions. -Workers had to be members. -They ran serveral schemes.
Name 3 schemes that the DAF ran. -Strength through Joy (KdF). -Beauty of Labour (SdA). -The Volkswagen.
What is the German for Strength through Joy? Kraft durch Freude.
What did Strength Through Joy do? -Aimed to increase productivity by making workers happy. -It provided low-cost or free activities for hard workers.
What is the German for Beauty of Labour? Schönheit der Arbeit.
What did Beauty of Labour do? -Aimed to improve conditions by: --Reducing noise in workplaces. --Providing canteens. --Building swimming pools.
Why was Schönheit der Arbeit so unpopular? Workers had to help construct these facilities in their spare time.
What was the Volkswagen scheme and what was the pay? -Workers paid 5 marks a week towards buying a car. -No cars bought by 1939. -Money went towards rearmament. -NOT refunded to workers.
Who were better off due to these new changes? -More jobs, most men in work. -Average weekly wages rose form 86 marks (1932) to 109 marks (1939). -Beauty of Labour - better conditions. -Strength through Joy - better leisure activites for workers.
Who were worse off due to these new changes? -Few rights - trade unions abolished. -Cost of living rose, which cancelled out wage increase. -Average working hours increased from 43 hours per week (1933) to 47 (1939(. -Few workers could afford the best activities and holidays provided by KdF.
What was the impact for women due to these new changes? -Some wanted to work. -Others were happy to stay at home and have children.
What was the impact for farmers due to these new changes? -Benefited from rising food prices. -Some had help from the Labour Service. -Others lost workers to the army and factories.
What was the impact for businesses due to these new changes? -Some benefited from closure of Jewish businesses. -Large businesses had EXTRA opportunities due to rearmament and subsidies. -Some used force labour from concentration camps. -No trade unions problems.
Name 4 ways in which there were changes in discrimination and persecution towards minority groups from 1933-39. -Concentration camps. -Nuremberg Laws. -The Shop Boycott. -Kristallnacht.
When were the Nuremburg Laws passed? 1935.
What did the Nuremberg Laws do? -Denied Jews the basic right of German citizenship. -Reich Citizenship Law made Jews 'subjects' rather than citizens. -Jews lost right to vote.
What did the Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honour do? It banned marriages between Jews and Aryans and forbade any sexual relations outside marriage.
When was the Shop Boycott? 1933.
What happened in the Shop Boycott? -SA organised a one-day boycott of Jewish shops, lawyers and doctors. -Some property damage. -Jews working in government jobs were sacked. -Jewish actors and musicians were banned from public performance.
When was Kristallnacht? 9-10th November 1938.
What triggered Kristallnacht? -The murder of Ernst von Rath. -He was killed by a Polish Jew.
What happened on Kristallnacht? -Over 815 shops were destroyed. -191 synagogues set on fire. -76 synagogues demolished. -91 Jews killed. -Over 20,000 arrested.
What did the press make of Kristallnacht and what was the opinion of the Germans? -Many Germans watched in HORROR and concern. -Nazi-controlled press presented it as ordinary Germans turning against the Jews.
What did Göring do? He required Jews to pay the cost of the damage of Kristallnacht.
Name 4 minority groups. -Mentally ill. -Gypsies. -Black people. -Vagrants.
What were the Nazi views on the mentally ill and what did they do to them? -Nazis convinced that mental illness was HEREDITARY and could not be cured. -Sterilized the mentally ill. -1945 - nearly 300,000 sterilized. -After outbreak of WW2, Nazi actions became more severe. -Set up the 'Public Ambulance Service Ltd' to kill mentally ill. -By 1945, 70,000 murdered.
What were the Nazi views on Gypsies and what did they do to them? -Threat as they were Non-Aryan and thought to be work-shy. -30,000 in Germany. -Nazis determined to prevent them mixing with Aryans.
What happened in 1935 and 1938 that affected Gypsies? -1935 - marriages between Gypsies and Aryans were banned. -1938 - a decree for the 'Struggle against Gypsy Plague' was issued. Gypsies were forced to register.
What were the Nazi views on black people and what did they do to them? -Seen as Untermenschen. -Nuremberg Laws of 1935 banned marriage between black people and Aryans. -Nazi treated black people like Gypsies. -Sterilized any children who were born to German women by black soldiers, who were stationed in the Rhineland after WW1.
What were the Nazi views on vagrants and what did they do to them? -Vagrants included: beggars, men moving from town to town trying to find work and young people who had left home. -Nazis forced these groups to work. -In 1938. SS rounded up 100,000 vagrants and placed them in concentration camps.
What was the Nazi Racial Hierarchy? -Aryans ('The Master Race'). -Other White Western Europeans. -Eastern Europeans. -Black people and gypsies. -Jews.
Name 5 ways which indicated the escalation of persecution during war years to 1945. -Death camps. -Wansee Conference. -Use of ghettoes. -Einstazgruppen. -The 'Final Solution'.
What happened in death camps? -On arrival, Jews divided into two groups. -Fit ones put to work. -Others sent to gas chambers. -Those puts to work not better off; worked to death in labour camps. -Older women, mothers with small children, pregnant women and children under were usually taken away and killed.
When was the Wannsee Conference? Summer of 1941.
What happened at the Wannsee Conference? -Nazi senior officials seeked a permanent end to the Jewish problem. -Wanted to exterminate them in death camps. -Signed by Göring but seemed to be the idea of Himmler.
When were the Einstazgruppen used? In June 1941 when Germany invaded Russia.
What did the Einstatzgruppen do? -They were murder squads. -Moved into Russia behind advancing German armies. -Their purpose: to round up and kill Jews. -They raided villages, rounded up Jews, made them dig their own graves then they shot the Jews.
What was the 'Final Solution'? The code name for the MASS EXTERMINATION of ALL Jews in Europe.
What was the first solution? The use of ghettos.
How did the ghettos work? -Nazis gathered Jews into ghettos in towns. -Walls built to keep them in. -Largest ghetto in Warsaw. -Prisoners only allowed starvation rations in ghettos.
How did people die in ghettos and how many died in the Warsaw ghetto? -From hunger, the intense cold or typhus. -About 55,000 died in Warsaw.
Give 5 reasons why Jews were persecuted. -Associated with communism. -Jealous of success - many Jews were professionals or owned businesses. -Used as scapegoats for Germany's problems. -Suspicious of a different religion. -Blamed for Germany's defeat in WW1 and ToV (some of the November Criminals were Jewish).
The following flashcards are a timeline of the escalation of Jew treatment from 1933 to 1945. The following flashcards are a timeline of the escalation of Jew treatment from 1933 to 1945.
1933 -Boycott of Jewish Shops by SA for one-day. -Jews sacked from jobs such as civil servants and lawyers. -Jewish actors and musicians banned from public performance.
1934 Local councils banned Jews from public places such as parks and swimming baths.
1935 -Nuremberg Laws introduced. -Denied Jews German citizenship (lost right to vote). -Banned from marrying Aryans. -Forbidden to join the army.
1936 Jews were banned from other professions such as vets, dentists, accountants, teachers and nurses.
1937 More Jewish businesses were 'Aryanized' - taken over by Aryans.
1938 (from April) -Jews had to register their property. -Jewish doctors, dentistsm and lawyers forbidden to treat or work for Aryans. -Passports of Jews stamped with 'J'.
1938 (from November) -Kristallnacht. -SA started a 3 day campaign to destroy Jewish shops, homes and synagogues. -Jewish children were excluded from German schools. -20,000 Jews arrested. -91 killed. -Jews were barred from owning or managing businesses.
1939 -Jews no longer allowed to run shops or businesses. -First ghettos were opened for Jews in German-occupied Poland.
June 1941. -Germany invaded Russia. -Einstatzgruppen units follow German army, rounding up Jews, marching them to places where they were forced to dig a huge grave, then shot.
Summer 1941 -Nazi leaders decide on 'Final Solution'. -This meant all Jews were to be murdered in German-occupied countries.
September 1941 All Jews in the German Reich were ordered to wear the yellow star of David.
January 1942 -Wannsee Conference. -Nazis agreed upon 'Final Solution'. -Extermination of all Jews in Europe.
1942-1945 Millions of Jews were killed in extermination camps such as Auschwitz.