Social Influence

Ashleigh Gildroy
Flashcards by Ashleigh Gildroy, updated more than 1 year ago


A2 Psychology (Social Influence) Flashcards on Social Influence, created by Ashleigh Gildroy on 11/11/2016.

Resource summary

Question Answer
What is Conformity? Conformity is when a dominant group influence the behaviour of an individual of a smaller group or individual.
List three types of conformity: 1) Compliance 2) Internalisation 3) Identificaion
What is Internalisation and why does it often happen? Internalisation is going along with the majority and genuinely believing their views. This may happen because of informational social influence, which means that people often conform when they're in new situations so they can behave correctly.
What is Identification? Identification is changing your behaviour in order to fit into a social role in society (Eg - A nurse)
Why do People Comply in Society? People undergo compliance because of normative social influence. This means conforming in order to appear normal and reduce the chance of rejection from your group.
What was the aim of Asch's experiment? To investigate normative social influence or To investigate conformity on an unambiguous task
What type of Experiment was Asch's Study? Asch carried out a laboratory experiment with an independent group design.
How many Genuine Participants per Group were there? 1/8 (Meaning 7 confederates)
What did the Participants had to do? Participants were shown different length lines. They had to state out loud which comparison line (out of 3) was most like the target line. They were often last or second to last to respond. The answer was always obvious.
What did the Confederates have to do and why? The confederates had to purposely give the wrong answer in order to for Asch to see whether the participant would conform or not due to normative social influence.
How many trials were there and how many of those trials were 'critical trials'? Asch produced 18 trials. However, only 12 of the 18 were critical trials (the confederates all gave the same wrong answer).
Explain Asch's use of his control group (1 sentence) Asch also had a control group, in which there were no confederates, just one 'true participant' comparing the line lengths alone.
What were the results? Asch found that 75% of participants in the critical trials conformed at least once. 25% never conformed. On average, participants conformed to the majority 37% of the time. Whereas, in the control group, participants gave wrong answers 0.7% of the time.
What did Asch conclude? The control group demonstrated that the task was easy to get right. Therefore, if participants conformed, they conformed due to normative social influence.
Evaluate a strength of Asch's study Asch's study was a lab experiment, therefore there a good control of all the variables.
Give a weakness of Asch's study Despite there being a good control of variables due to it being a lab experiment, there is low ecological validity.
Gender bias? Asch's study isolates females, and only uses males for his studies. This is a weakness as his results cannot be generalised to females.
Ethics? The participants in Asch's study may feel deceived as they were unaware of the true aim of the study and may felt embarrassed once they were aware of the actual nature, therefore the study is unethical due to it's treatment of the participants.
List the three Situational Factors which may affect Social Influence 1) Group Size 2) Social Support 3) Task Difficulty
How did group size affect Asch's study? Asch replicated the same experiment but altering group size. He found that with 2 confederates, conformity was only 14%. But with 3 confederates, conformity rose to 32%. This demonstrates the bigger the majority, the more influential they will be.
How did social support affect Asch's study? Asch replicated his study again, however rather than all the majority saying the same wrong answer, one of the confederates would agree with the participant. Conformity fell to 5.5%
(Asch's study) Task Difficulty? The more difficult the experiment became, the more people conformed.
Define a Social Role A social role are a set of expectation and behaviours that coming from holding an authoritarian position in society.
What was the aim of Zimbardo's study? To investigate if participants would conform to social roles.
What year was Zimbardo's study? 1973
What year was Milgram's study? 1963
Define Obedience Obedience means acting in response to a direct order
What was the aim of Milgram's study? To investigate how strong people obey to authority despite the consequence
What type of experiment did Milgram use? A Laboratory Experiment
Where was the study set? (Milgram) At Yale University
How many men took part in the study? (Milgram) 40 Men
What did the experimenter wear during Milgram's experiment and why was it significant? White lab experiment and it was worn to emphasize the experimenter's authority amongst the participants, so they'll take him more seriously
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