7.) Morphology continued

Lisza Neumeier
Flashcards by Lisza Neumeier, updated more than 1 year ago


Linguistics (Morphology) Flashcards on 7.) Morphology continued, created by Lisza Neumeier on 11/12/2016.
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stem =base=the element to which a bound morpheme is attached English stems can often also stand alone
Revision: What is morphology? The study of the shape and internal structure of words.
Inflection in English -Old English (until 1100): nouns, verbs, adjectives, articles, pronouns were inflected -English today: only a limited number of grammatical relations are expressed by inflection --> loss of inflectional morphology of 100 years ago --> fixation of word order, prepositions analytic ‘drift’ in the history of English
all that's left of inflection in English d08480fc-3de7-44ad-b943-e38b0c8006f4.png (image/png)
inflection vs. derivation overview 4f87db35-9423-4c0d-9147-4b7277c0a43e.png (image/png)
definition inflection If grammatical information and categories are expressed by affixes, this is called inflection.
definition derivation If new lexemes are created by adding an affix to a lexical base, this is called derivation.
Inflection characteristics • NEVER changes the word class (nouns stay as nouns, verbs stay as verbs, etc) • Stable form-meaning relationship • Suffixes attach to all possible bases • Inflection can only be suffixes in English (or word-internal changes)
Inflection (English has become more analytic than in 1100) • Analytic: Uses auxiliary verbs and prepositions to complete the meaning • Synthetic: The meaning is contained within the word itself • Compare: we did vs. we have done
Derivation characteristics • CAN change the word class (but doesn’t have to) • Variable form-meaning relationship • Affixes attach to a subset of possible bases • Inflection can take the form of prefixes and suffixes in English
Allomorphy definition a type of bound morpheme that cannot be assigned a meaning nor a grammatical function, but nonetheless serves to distinguish one word from the other 21907e3c-f457-42ff-afce-7781a1d9ce22.png (image/png)
Allomorphy what? similar to anything? • Similar system to the phoneme-allophone relationship • Phonemes (abstract category) are realized by phones (actual sounds) • All the different phones that correspond to a phoneme are called allophones of that phoneme • Same principle here!
Allomorphy plural examples 2630ecd1-2f68-465a-b144-19a2f407f712.png (image/png)
Allomorphy plural e1ea45c2-f177-48b6-89fa-f8a08ad8f69f.png (image/png)
Allomorphs Allophones comparison f1582529-eeaa-49b1-b625-abc71383a593.png (image/png)
Definitions in more detail 1.) morphs 2.) allomorphs Morph: A meaningful and/or functionally relevant element of an utterance e.g. [z] in cats [kætz] Allomorphs: Morphs which have been classified as representations of a specific morpheme. e.g. [z], [s], [ɪz], [ɹən] etc for {plural}
Allomorphy indefinite article ə: a dog, a lake ən: an arm, an egg ei: 'a' cup not 'the' cup dbdb27c0-fd36-4e9e-81d8-06d456531de3.png (image/png)
Allomorphy conditioning What types of conditioning are there? (i.e. what determines which allomorph we produce?) • Phonological conditioning – dependent on the neighbouring sounds • Lexical conditioning – dependent on the word itself as a whole • Morphological conditioning – dependent on the attached morphemes
phonological conditioning e25f0b86-f8cd-4d0a-989e-c3cec7d4c8d7.png (image/png)
lexical conditioning b0afbfb7-78a2-4dea-916b-fcb9022cc6a9.png (image/png)
morphological conditioning 32769c27-c0a4-4716-9b07-1b656bf5d38c.png (image/png)
4 word formation processes • Compounding • Affixation • Conversion • Shortenings
Compounding what? examples! Putting lexemes (i.e. content words, free morphemes) together to create something new: • Geography teacher • Playground • High-tech
Compounding Where do we put the stress in a compound phrase? A: On the first part (i.e. the left-hand member) • English teacher --> a teacher of English (could be from Germany) • English teacher --> a teacher who happens to be English (could be a history teacher)
Compound types (most productive <-> least productive) e471f532-7d22-4e4d-9914-f346bead1f4c.png (image/png)
Compounds Complexitiy and Constituency We can have compounds that consist of more than two parts, for instance: • Nursery school teacher • Wildlife sanctuary • Fast food restaurant
Compound Complexitiy and Constituency How do we know which words are added in which order? cdad37da-648f-4854-a14b-9bbaa0488bee.png (image/png)
same with ''fast food restaurant'' b2a09cfb-f745-43d3-88e1-ac091e12a257.png (image/png)
Compounds Complexity and Constituency What part contributes the main meaning? 26c65277-0bba-48d4-986a-7df5b312ee45.png (image/png)
Compounds Complexity and Constituency Where do we add inflections? 599d1bdc-e7a8-4d7c-b261-5adbf270b8bd.png (image/png)
Compounds Complexity and constituency What can we say about the right hand element in a compound phrase general? (3) • It carries the core meaning • It determines the word-class • It carries the inflection
Affixation In English, we have two types of affix: prefixes and suffixes Since we’re talking about word-formation here, we speak of derivational affixes (bound lexical morphemes). (prefix) + base + (suffix) eg. pre- warn mal- function own - er beauti - ful un - happi - ness
Affixation and changing of word class: Prefixes? Suffixes? Prefixes: Rarely change the word-class (write – rewrite) Suffixes: • Often change the word-class (beauty – beautiful) • Create derivatives of a certain word-class (i.e. –ful creates adjectives, -ify creates verbs) • Attach to bases of a certain word-class (i.e. –ful can attach to nouns, but not verbs)
Suffixes that create derivatives of a certain word-class (are attached ti bases of certain word-class) a16f5f29-c83d-4d00-bd02-c0f67a367a33.png (image/png)
One suffix can create different meanings, for instance: (agent nouns, instrumental nouns) Suffix: -er Teacher, painter, leader, writer: people that do things (agent nouns) Mixer, slicer, toaster: things that are used to do things (instrumental nouns)
Conversion what? • Creation of a new word, belonging to a new word-class, without any overt marking. • Also called zero-derivation. • Same form – different word-classes / meanings eg. I read a lot of books. --> This book is a good read. This glass is empty. --> I'll just empty this class. This plant needs water. --> You should water the plant.
Shortenings What? 4 types • Linguistic material is deleted as opposed to added • There is no change in word-class or meaning (exception: back-formation) 4 types: • Clippings • Blends • Abbreviations • Back-formation
Clippings Words are ‘chopped down’: • Elizabeth -> Liz • Patrick -> Pat • Examination -> Exam • University -> Uni NO CHANGE IN MEANING
Blends Parts of two words are fused to make one: • Motorway + hotel = Motel • Breakfast + lunch = Brunch • Situation + comedy = Sitcom • Helicopter + airport = Heliport
Abbreviations • Some abbreviations make it into the general vocabulary • They are then spelt as regular words: • Laser (from: light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) • Radar (from: radio detection and ranging) • Asap (from: as soon as possible) • Scuba (from: self-contained underwater breathing apparatus)
Back-formation Words seem to have a suffix, when in fact this was never a suffix to begin with. This element is then taken away. This changes the word-class Examples: Editor -> Edit Babysitter -> Babysit Intuition -> Intuit Sleepwalking -> Sleepwalk
Word formation productivity a9361bd6-8f4b-4a6f-b240-3e2031f422a5.png (image/png)
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