Water on the Land

Flashcards by yusanr98, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by yusanr98 about 7 years ago


GCSE Physical Geography (AQA) Flashcards on Water on the Land, created by yusanr98 on 04/02/2014.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Tributary A smaller river or stream flowing into a larger river.
V-Shaped Valley A valley with steep sides and a narrow bottom that has been formed by erosion.
Interlocking Spurs The stream winds around ridges, or spurs of land, which jut into their valley.
River Channel It is a type of landform consisting of the outline of a path of relatively shallow and narrow body of water.
Types of Erosion Abrasion, Attrition, Hydraulic Action and Solution
Erosion Wearing away rocks by natural process of rivers, ice, wind and sea.
Abrasion The erosion of a surface by pieces of rock carried in rivers and glaciers.
Attrition A process where the rocks and stones moving along in the water get knocked against each other and are gradually worn away.
Hydraulic Action Fast flowing water pushes air into cracks and the force of this causes the channel to break up over time.
Solution When minerals are dissolved in water and you can no longer see them.
Types of Transport Saltation, Solution, Traction and Suspension
Saltation Transports small stones or pebbles.
Solution Transports dissolved minerals or chemical.
Traction Transports large stones.
Suspension Transports tiny particle of sediment.
Load The material that river carries.
Bedload Heavier material is carried along the bottom.
Waterfall A vertical fall of water where the course of a river is interrupted by a steep drop in the land it is flowing.
Gorge A steep-sided cut through the landscape formed over thousand of years by retreating waterfall.
Plunge Pool The area of deep water at the bottom of a waterfall, formed by hydraulic action and the grinding of rocks and pebbles.
Flood Plain A flat area either side of a river which floods when the river overflows.
Meander Bends found along the course of a river.
Helical Flow The rivers natural flow.
Thalweg The fastest current.
Point Bar Where the slower-moving water deposits.
Oxbow Lake A lake shaped like crescent that is formed when a river bend is cut off from the main flow and becomes isolated.
Sediment Materiel such as sand and clay that is carried by a river.
Levees River embankments built as a flood defence.
Bankfull Point from where water begins to overflow onto a floodplain.
Mudflats Flat coastal areas formed when mud is deposited by rivers and coasts.
Salt marshes An area of coastal grassland that is regularly flooded by seawater.
Long Profile The side view of a river course from source to mouth which shows how the gradient of the river changes as it flows.
Cross Profile Cut away view through a feature from side to side.
Discharge The amount of water flowing in a river at any one point.
Antecedent Rainfall The rainfall occurring within a specifically defined time period prior to the first rainfall.
Hydograph A graph showing how a river responds to a storm, showing the rainfall and discharge to break up over time.
Rising Limb The increase of rainfall.
Lag Time The gap between the peak (maximum) rainfall and peak discharge (highest river level).
Confluence The point where two rivers meet.
Hard Engineering Building structure to deal with natural hazards, such as dams to prevent flooding.
Soft Engineering Involves adapting to natural hazards and working with nature to limit damage. For example, planting trees to limit flood risk.
Water Stress Lack of sufficient available water resources to meet the demands of water usage within a region.
Water Transfer-Scheme Water is transferred from one area to another.
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