Simple inheritance in animals and plants

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GCSE Biology Additional Science (AQA) Flashcards on Simple inheritance in animals and plants, created by yusanr98 on 04/04/2014.

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Question Answer
How are chromosomes arranged in body cells? In body cells, chromosomes are found in pairs.
What is mitosis? Asexual cell division where two identical cells are formed.
What is cell differentiation and how does it differ in animals and plants? Most types of animal cell differentiate at an early stage of development. Many plant cells can differentiate throughout their life.
What is meiosis? The two-stage process of cell division which reduces the chromosomes number of the daughter cells. It is involved in making the gametes for sexual reproduction.
How does sexual reproduction give rise to variation? Sexual reproduction gives rise to variety because genetic information from two parents is combined.
What is special about stem cells? Embryonic cells and adult cells can be made to differentiate into many different types of cells.
How can we use stem cells to cure people? Stem cells have the potential to treat previously incurable conditions. We may be able to grow nerve cells or whole new organs for people who need them.
What is DNA? Deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material which is present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information.
How are specific proteins made in the body? A gene is a small section of DNA that codes for a particular combination of amino acids, which make a specific protein.
How is sex determined in humans? In human body cells the sex chromosomes determine whether you are female (XX) or male (XY).
Can you construct a genetic diagram? Yes
Can you construct a genetic diagram to make predictions about the likelihood of inheriting a genetic disorder? Yes
Polydactyly A genetic condition inherited through a dominant allele which results in extra fingers and toes.
Cystic fibrosis A genetic disease that affects the lungs, digestive and reproductive systems. It is inherited through a recessive allele.
Are there any problems related to embryo screening? There are number of economic, social and ethical issues surrounding the screening of embryos.
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