Molecular Genetics

Queeny MCAT
Mind Map by Queeny MCAT, updated more than 1 year ago
Queeny MCAT
Created by Queeny MCAT about 5 years ago
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Description

MCAT Biochemistry Mind Map on Molecular Genetics, created by Queeny MCAT on 05/30/2016.

Resource summary

Molecular Genetics
  1. Transcription
    1. Initiation
      1. Step-By-Step
        1. Promoter recognized by Transcription Factors
          1. RNA Pol. II recruits by transcript factors
            1. Transcription begins and continues 3'-5' along template strand
      2. Elongation
        1. Complementary RNA nuctids. add to growing RNA (U/T)
        2. Termination
          1. Step-by-Step
            1. Polyadenylation signals to cut from polymerase
              1. RNA is PRE-mRNA
                1. RNA Pol. falls off template strand
          2. Purpose
            1. Converts DNA to RNA
              1. Protects information
                1. Multiple RNA copies for more protein production
                2. Post-Transcript Mods (Eukaryotes Only)
                  1. Purpose
                    1. Export of mRNA from nucleus
                      1. Protect mRNA from degradation
                        1. Facilitated proper translation
                        2. 5' Capping
                          1. Modified guanine
                            1. Add 5' end during transcript
                          2. Poly-A-Tail
                            1. multiple adenines added at end of signal--3'
                            2. Intron Splicing
                              1. Spliceosome
                                1. Removes introns (snRNA)
                                  1. Products: mature mRNA and circular intron
                                2. Alternative Splicing
                                  1. 1 gene codes multiple proteins
                            3. Translation
                              1. Purpose
                                1. Convert mRNA to Protein
                                2. Ribosomal Structure
                                  1. Large Unit
                                    1. Small unit
                                    2. mRNA Binding Sites
                                      1. Exit
                                        1. Peptidyl-tRNA bind site
                                          1. Aminoacyl tRNA Bind site
                                          2. Reading Frame
                                            1. Codons
                                              1. 3 mRNA Nucleotides and 1 amino acid
                                                1. Stop
                                                  1. UAG, UAA, UGA
                                              2. adapters with an anticodon
                                                1. Each bind to ONE specific amino acid at Carboxylic Acid
                                                2. Initiation
                                                  1. tRNA (Transfer RNA)
                                                    1. Step-by-step
                                                      1. Initiator t-RNA (methionine) binds to small unit with initiation factors
                                                        1. small ribosomal subunit/initiator t-RNA binds m-RNA 5' cap to 5' end
                                                          1. Scan toward 3' end until start codon
                                                            1. AUG
                                                  2. Elongation
                                                    1. Step-by-step
                                                      1. Current tRNA at P-Site
                                                        1. moving toward 3'New tRNA add to A-site
                                                          1. AA ads to carboxy end
                                                            1. Chain grows to A-site
                                                              1. Large shifts 1st one codon
                                                                1. Small shifts
                                                                  1. tRNA in P-site now in E-site and A-site now P-site
                                                                    1. E-site Ejects and new A-site tRNA is added
                                                    2. Termination
                                                      1. Step-by-step
                                                        1. When A-site reads stop codon
                                                          1. UAG, UAA, UGA
                                                            1. Release factor releases peptide chain and ribosomes dissociate
                                                    3. Gene Expression
                                                      1. Purpose
                                                        1. efficiency and adaptive
                                                          1. cells have same genome; need regulation
                                                            1. Results in different cell types
                                                            2. Step-By-Step
                                                              1. 1. DNA-->RNA (single)
                                                                1. 2. RNA to mRNA
                                                                  1. 3. Out of Nucleus thought Nuc pore; direction
                                                                    1. 4. Translation Route-->Protein
                                                                      1. Protein-->Activated!
                                                                      2. 5. Degredation Route
                                                              2. Protein Degredation
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