The Coastal Zone Key Terms Flashcards

John Ditchburn
Flashcards by John Ditchburn, updated more than 1 year ago
John Ditchburn
Created by John Ditchburn almost 6 years ago
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Flashcards of key terms
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Question Answer
Fetch the distance of open water over which the wind can blow
Beach a deposit of sand or shingle at the coast, often found at the head of a bay
Crest the top of a wave.
Swash the forward movement of a wave up a beach.
Backwash the backward movement of water down a beach when a wave has broken.
Constructive wave a powerful wave with a strong swash that surges up a beach.
Destructive wave a wave formed by a local storm that crashes down onto a beach and has a powerful backwash.
Cliff a steep or vertical face of rock often found at the coast.
Rockfall the collapse of a cliff face or the fall of individual rocks from a cliff.
Hydraulic power the sheer power of the waves.
Corrasion the effect of rocks being flung at the cliff by powerful waves.
Longshore drift the transport of sediment along a stretch of coastline caused by waves approaching the beach at an angle
Bay a broad coastal inlet often with a beach.
Headland a point of usually high land jutting out into the sea.
Wave-cut platform a wide, gently sloping rocky surface at the foot of a cliff.
Wave-cut notch a small indentation (or notch) cut into a cliff by coastal erosion roughly at the level of high tide.
Cave a hollowed-out feature at the base of an eroding cliff.
Arch a headland that has been partly broken through by the sea to form a thin-roofed arch.
Stack an isolated pinnacle of rock sticking out of the sea.
Spit a finger of new land made of sand or shingle, jutting out into the sea from the coast.
Salt marsh low-lying coastal wetland mostly extending between high and low tide.
Bar spit that has grown across a bay.
Sliding a type of mass movement involving material moving downhill on a flat surface (a landslide).
Slumping a type of mass movement involving material moving downhill under its own weight.
Landslip a type of mass movement common at the coast involving material slipping downhill usually along a curved slip surface.
Shoreline Management Plan (SMP) an integrated coastal management plan for a stretch of coastline in England and Wales.
Hard engineering building artificial structures such as sea walls aimed at controlling natural processes.
Soft engineering a sustainable approach to managing the coast without using artificial structures.
Sea wall concrete or rock barrier built at the foot of cliffs or at the top of a beach.
Groyne timber or rock structure built out to sea to trap sediment being moved by longshore drift.
Rock armour piles of large boulders dumped at the foot of a cliff to protect it by forcing waves to break and absorbing their energy.
Managed retreat allowing controlled flooding of low-lying coastal areas or cliff collapse in areas where the value of the land is low.
Pioneer plant the first plant species to colonise an area that is well adapted to living in a harsh environment.
Sediment loose rock debris that has been weathered or eroded before being transported and then deposited.
Vegetation succession a sequence of vegetation species colonising an environment.
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