Flashcards by reynoldslaura, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by reynoldslaura almost 8 years ago


Flashcards on Pharmacology, created by reynoldslaura on 05/08/2013.

Resource summary

Question Answer
What is the mode of action of chlorpheniramine? It competes with histamine for the H1 receptor sites on effector cells of the GI tract, blood vessels and respiratory tract
Which drug appears to reduce aqueous humor production and can therefore be used as an antiglaucoma medicine? Timolol
Which drug is an ACE inhibitor? Ramipril (used to treat heart failure)
Which drugs cannot be given to asthmatics and why? Atenolol and propanolol cannot be given as they are NON specific antagonists of β adrenergic receptors therefore they will cause bronchioconstriction at the β2 receptors in the lungs
Which drug could be used to reverse morphine overdose? Naloxone - it is a competitive antagonist at opioid receptors (especially mu receptors- morphine is a mu-opioid agonist)
What does amlodipine do? and what can it be used to treat? Amlodipine is a calcium channel blocking agent (like verapamil) - decreases arterial smooth muscle contractility and subsequent vasoconstriction by inhibiting influx of calcium ions- antihypertensive
What are the two uses of flurosemide? Used to treat heart failure and can be used as a diuretic
How does bendroflumethiazide work? It inhibits active Cl¯ reabsorption at the early distal tubule via Na⁺-Cl¯ co transporter so increases excretion of Na⁺, Cl¯ and H₂O
Give an example of an antithrombotic medicine and its mode of action. Acetylsalicylic acid- functions by irreversibly inhibiting COX in platelets therefore preventing the formation of the aggregating agent thromboxane A2 for the whole life of the exposed platelet
Name an anti-acid Aluminium hydroxide- reacts with excess acid in the stomach
How does insulin work? It binds to the α subunit of the insulin receptor which stimulates its tyrosine kinase activity intrinsic to the β subunit . IR→IRS-1→PI3K→PDKI→PKB→translocation of GLUT-4 to plasma membrane
Give an example of a thyroid hormone Levothyroxine
Give an example of a competitive antagonist of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Curare
What does the drug neostigmine do? It inhibits acetylcholinesterase in the synaptic cleft by competing with acetylcholine for attachment to acetylcholinedterase therefore prolongs the effects of acetylcholine
Which lasts longer, neostigmine or pyridostigmine? Pyidostigmine , only slightly longer lasting
What does hydrocortisone do? It binds with high affinity to specific cytoplasmic receptors to produce inhibition of leukocyte infiltration at the site of inflammation- suppression of humeral immune response
When can verapamil be used and what is its mode of action? Verapamil is used as an antianginal medication - it inhibits influx of extracellular calcium across BOTH myocardial and vascular smooth muscle cell membranes
What does COX stand for? and what does it normally produce? It stands for cyclooxygenase enzyme and it is an enzyme that produces prostaglandins and thromboxanes
What does Ramipril do and how does it function? It is used to treat hypertension and heart failure and it works by competing with angiotensin I for binding at an angiotensin converting enzyme - thus blocking the conversion from angiotensin I →angiotensin II
What is warfarin's mode of action? It inhibits vitamin K reductase resulting in depletion of the reduced form of vitamin K therefore causes subsequent inactivation of vitamin K-dependent coagulation proteins (II, VII, IX and X)
Give examples of two drugs that can be used as local anaesthetics. Lidocaine, atropine or diazepam
How does diazepam work? It works by enhancing GABA activity by acting at the benzodiazepine-GABA receptor complex to produce sedation
How does atropine work? It is a COMPETITIVE antagonist of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor
Give examples of two NSAIDs Asprin and paracetomal
How does asprin work? It IRREVERSIBLY binds to the COX enzyme thus suppressing the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes to reduce inflammation
How does the mode of action of ibuprofen differ to that of asprin? Ibuprofen reversibly inactivates the COX enzyme however asprin binds irreversibly
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