Pharmacology

Justin Veazey
Flashcards by Justin Veazey, updated more than 1 year ago
Justin Veazey
Created by Justin Veazey over 6 years ago
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Various things that I need to remember

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Question Answer
Alpha 1 receptor (Effects) Vasoconstriction Mydriasis
Alpha 2 receptor (effects) Vasodilation Sedation & analgesia
Beta 1 receptor (function) +ve ionotropy Tachycardia
Beta 2 receptors (function) Bronchodilation Vasodilation (musc) Uterine relaxation
Alpha 1 Agonist Phenylephrine
Alpha 1 Antagonist Prasozin
Alpha 2 Agonist Xylazine Detomidine
Alpha 2 Antagonist Yohimbine Atipamezole
Beta 2 receptor Antagonist Propranolol
Beta 1 receptor Agonist Dobutamine Dopamine
Beta 2 Receptor Agonist Salbutamol Clenbuterol
Beta 1 receptor Antagonist Atenelol Metoprolol
Beta 3 Receptor Function Lipolysis
M1 receptor Funciton Neural CNS excitation, Gastric acid secretion, Gut motility
M2 Receptor function Cardiac & Neural inhibition
M3 receptor funciton Glandular Secretion, smooth muscle contraction, Vasodilation (NO)
M4 receptor function CNS Smooth muscle
M5 receptor function substantia nigra, Salivary glands, Iris
ACh effects Decreased blood pressure Bradychardia Increased secretion and motility in GI tract Smooth muscle contraction in bladder, Uterus, bronchioles Convulsions Stimulation of autonomic ganglia and adrenal medulla Skeletal muscle contraction
Direct-acting Parasymathomiments Acetylcholine Bethanechol (PO) Pilocarpine (eye) Carbachol Muscarine (poisoning)
Bethanechol effects Contracts detrusor muscle (bladder paralysis) [Selectivity for M3 receptors]
When do you not use Bethanechol? GI obstruction
Pilocarpine effects Induces miosis 2-6 hours (iris contraction) Decreases IOP (lifts Iris from trabecular meshwork)
When do you not use Pilocarpine Anterior uveitis or Anterior lens luxation
Reversible anticholinesterases (Indirect-acting Parasymathomiments) Neostigmine Edrophonium Pyridostigmine Physostigmine Demecarium Carbamates
Neostigmine 'uses' Reversal of Competitive NMB Rumen atony Initiating peristalsis Emptying the bladder Myasthenia gravis (usually longer acting pyridostimine)
Edrophonium Diagnose Myasthenia gravis (dogs/cats) [Shorter acting t/ Neostigmine)
When Edrophonium is used to Diagnose a problem; What are the two possible outcomes? Myasthenic crisis (improved muscle funciton) Cholinergic crisis (muscle weakness)
Irreversible anticholinesterases [Indirect-acting parasymathomiments] Echthiophate (eye) Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (eye) Antiparasitics Insecticides/Pesticides
Echotiophate/DFP (Diisopropyl fluorophosphate) Effect Miosis (12 hours) Decreased IOP (lifting meshwork)
When do you not use Echotiophate /diisopropyl fluorophophate? Anterior uveitis anterior lens luxation [same as pilocarpine]
Organophosphate toxicity Treatment Atropine Pralidoxime
Direct-acting parasymathhomiments examples Atropine Glycopyrrolate Scopolamine (hyosine) Aminopentamide Oxybutynin Propantheline Pirenzepine (M1-gut only) Ipratropium
Atropine effects Dries secretions Slows gut Tachycardia Bronchodilation Mydriasis Cycoplegia Difficulty w/ urination
Atropine Indications Anesthetic pre-medication Gut-spasm (not very effective) Bradycardia Organophosphate poisoning
Atropine Contraindications Glaucoma Tachycardia
Atropine Precautions/Considerations Horses-panic (adynamic ileus) Ruminants- decreased parotid, sticky saliva Cats- hypersalivation, bitter taste Rabbits- break it down quickly
Glycopyrrolate 'Facts' Muscarinic antagonist Specific- Heart Less tachyarrhythmias Pre-anesthetic: Dogs/Cats [longer lasting- Atropine, more expensive]
Scopolamine More CNS effects t/ atropine [Direct-acting parasymathomimentics]
N-butylscopolammonium Bromide Does not cross the BBB -NSAIDs [Direct-acting parasymathomimetics]
Aminopentamide GI indications; Vomiting/diarrhea/nausea/visceral spasm Cats/Dogs
Oxybutynin/ Propantheline Relax the bladder wall Allows filling [Direct-acting parasymathomimetics]
Examples of; Muscarinic agonists as mydraitics Atropine Tropicamide Homatropine Cyclopentolate Scopolamine
Treatments for: Heart Failure Epinephrine B1 agonists
Treatments for: Anaphylactic reaction Epinephrine
Treatments for: Airway obstruction Clenbuterol Albuterol B2 agonists
What would you use to slow a heart-rate? B1 blockers
What would you use for vasodilation? (think general) A1 blockers
Alpha 1 selective agonist Phenylephrine
Alpha 2 selective agonist examples Xylazine Detomidine Medetomidine Dexmedetomidine Romifidine
What is special about the A2 agonist Brimonidine? Very little CNS effects
Main use of Phenylephrine Hypotension/shock (Eye Diagnostic) Mydriasis
Ractopamine/Zilpaterol Non-selective B agonists Partitioning agents (weight/feed/leanness)
Which species is Ractopamine used in? Pigs, Cattle, Turkeys [Non-selective B agonists] (Partitioning)
What species is Zilpaterol used in? Cattle 'Partitioning agent' [Non selective B agonist]
Which receptors does Isoxsuprine work on? B2 agonist/ A1 antagonist
What are Albuterol/Clenbuterol used for? Asthma, COPD, Acute bronchitis Ciliary augmenters
Adverse effects of: Albuterol/Clenbuterol -Cardiostimulation, Vasodilation, uterine relaxation -Nervousness, sweating, muscle tremors -Receptor down-regulation
Direct+Indirect-acting Sympathomimentics Examples Phenylpropanolamine Ephedrine Pseudoephedrine
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